Practice Test


1) Forest and wild life are:


2) Which one of the following forests is more diverse?


3) Deciduous forests are the characteristic of the region having:


4) Which one of the following is most effective in controlling floods?


5) Indian bustard bird is on the verge of extinction due to:


6) Tropical evergreen forests are found in India in:


7) Which one of the following birds has gained importance as wild life in recent years?


8) Corbett National Park, first to be established, is present in:


9) Which of the following birds in India is on the verge of extinction?


10) What percentage of total land area is covered by forests in India?


11) Conifers are dominant vegetation of:


12) How many species of plants are threatened with extinction?


13) With reference to conservation of wild life, how many 'Project Tiger' areas have been selected:


14) In which state of India is the Gir Lion sanctuary situated?


15) The most effective means of conservation is to:


16) The bird 'Dodo' became extinct because of:


17) Which is the only home of yellow maned Indian Lion?


18) Indian Rhinoceros is the most protected species in National Park:


19) What for IUCN stands:


20) Small parks tend to support only:


21) Main cause of extinction of wild life is:


22) Deforestation causes:


23) Quinine is obtained from:


24) Rare species are those:


25) Biologists celebrate every year 5th June as:


26) On which date wild life day is celebrated?


27) Project tiger was launched in:


28) Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Project is concerned with conservation scheme of:


29) Biosphere reserve areas are:


30) Wildlife protection act was made in:


31) In national parks which of the following are not allowed:


32) World forest day is observed on:


33) The concept of critical habitats is:


34) The species which are in the immediate danger of extinction are called:


35) The percentage of endangered living species is:


36) Periyar Wildlife sanctuary is situated at:


37) Ranthambore National Park is situated in:


38) Quinine is:


39) White tigers are conserved in:


40) Flamingo in India are preserved at:


41) Deforestation may reduce the chances of:


42) Earth summit at Rio-de-Janeiro (Brazil) was related to:


43) Cultigens include:


44) If environmental restoration is started right now, resolving the present man-made ecological crisis will take about:


45) Man disturbs natural food chains by:


46) Silent valley of Kerala is being preserved because it has:


47) MAB stands for:


48) Kaziranga wild life sanctuary is famous for:


49) The 'threatened species' refers to the species which are:


50) The number of vertebrate species facing danger of extinction is about:


51) The concept of "Biosphere Reserve" was conceived by:


52) Which of the following animals has become almost extinct in India?


53) Whales when washed ashore will die because:


54) The famous Chipko movement was started by:


55) When was MAB launched by UNESCO?


56) A species in immediate danger of extinction is:


57) Identify the correct match between tiger reserve and its state:


58) First National Park of India is:


59) Which of the following is matching pair of sanctuary and its main protected animals?


60) About what species of earth's species will be destroyed if all the tropical rain forests are destroyed?


61) Species most vulnerable to extinction from human activities are those with:


62) Which of following types of animals does man chiefly protect?


63) Red panda is preserved at:


64) "Chipko Movement" is world's most known eco development programme started by Sunder Lal Bahuguna (1973). It is related with:


65) Which is correct for threatened (T) species:


66) Vulnerable (V) species are those:


67) A biosphere reserve preserve:


68) Animals and plants can be best protected in:


69) Conservation of wild life is essential to:


70) Symbol of WWF-N


71) Threatened species often include:


72) Species which occur in small populations and are restricted to only certain geographical areas are placed under the category:


73) Conservation of living resources is a complex operation and is concerned with:


74) Which one of the following would be more appropriate in producing high yielding varieties?


75) Had Cinchona been eliminated before its use was discovered, man would have been deprived of:


76) Kanha Biosphere reserve is to be established in:


77) Cold deserts of India occurs in:


78) In wild life sanctuary:


79) Number of Biosphere reserves in world is:


80) Marine invertebrates are protected in:


81) Number of Endangered species of Angiosperms in India:


82) World Wildlife Fund was organised by UNESCO in:


83) Tadoba National Park is located in:


84) The species of animals protected in Biligiri Rangaswamy National Park is:


85) The most threatening factor for survival of plant biodiversity is:


86) In bioreserves .... is allowed:


87) Which endangered animal is the source of world's finest, lightest, warmest and most expensive wool-the shahtoosh?


88) According to Indian Forest policy what percentage of land area should be under forest cover?


89) Species listed in "Red Data Book" are:


90) Similipal is:


91) Which is the most effective way to conserve the plant diversity of an area?


92) Which one of the following is a pair of endangered species?


93) If the Bengal tiger becomes extinct:


94) Which of the following animals is protected in Kaziranga Sanctuary of Assam?


95) According to IUCN Red List, what is the status of Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)?


96) Biodiversity Act of India was passed by the Parliament in the year:


97) One of the ex situ conservation methods for endangered species is:


98) Genetic diversity in agricultural crops is threatened by:


99) Black buck (Antilope cervucarpa) is an example of:


100) Keystone species deserve protection because these:


101) In India, we find mangoes with different flavours, colours, fibre content, sugar content and even shelf-life. The large variation is on account of:


102) Biosphere Reserves differ from national parks and wildlife sanctuaries because in the former:


103) Which one of the following is the correctly matched pair of an endangered animal and a National Park?


104) Which of the following is considered a "hot-spot" of biodiversity in India?


105) Which one of the following is not included under insitu conservation?


106) Which of the following parts of an animal and a plant represents endangered organisms in India?


107) Which one is a critically endangered animal species?


108) Which of the following regions of our country are known for their rich biodiversity?


109) Pure clay is not suitable for plant growth because:


110) Humus is an example of:


111) Restoration of ecological equilibrium in mined areas can be achieved through:


112) In Northern Indian plains, there is an increase in floods in recent times due to:


113) Laterization is a process that results in the:


114) Which of the following soils cracks and shrinks most as it dries:


115) What is the best pH of the soil for cultivation of plants:


116) Which are the dense forests?


117) Which of the following is the main reason for extinction of animals?


118) Rhizophora occurs in:


119) Major fuel component of biogas is:


120) Water infiltration will be slowest in:


121) Amount of alcohol allowed to be mixed with petrol in India is:


122) More than 70% of world's freshwater is contained in:


123) Identify the odd combination of the habitat and the particular animal concerned:


124) One of endangered species of Indian medicinal plants is that of:


125) In your opinion, which is the most effective way conserve the plant diversity of an area?


126) Manas sancturary is located at:


127) Assertion (A): Tropical rain forests are disappearing fast from developing countries such as India.
Reason (R): No value is attached to these forests because these are poor in biodiversity.


128) Habitat loss and fragmetation, over exploitation, alien species invasion and co-extinction are causes for:


129) The venue and year of the Earth Summit on Conservation of Biodiversity was:


130) India became a party to 'Convention on Biological Diversity' in year:


131) Which one of the following is not observed in biodiversity hotspots?


132) World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) was held in:


133) Which one of the following have the highest number of species in nature?


134) Which one of the following shows maximum genetic diversity in India?


135) Which of the following expanded forms of the following acronyms is correct?


136) The term biodiversity refers to:


137) An American plant that has become a waterweed in India is:


138) Endemic plants are those which are:


139) Planting of flower and fruit trees along road sides is included in:


140) Decline in our forests is due to:


141) What is cause of destruction of biologically rich and unique habitats?


142) Ginkgo has been removed from the list of endangered species due to:


143) What is the approximate number of species of fish described all over the world?


144) Which of the following levels of biodiversity are interrelated?
(I) Genetic diversity
(II) Species diversity
(III) Community and ecosystem diversity


145) What is the basis of speciation?


146) Alpha diversity refers to:


147) From which of the following plant, medicine is obtained used as analgesic?


148) Anthropogenic extinction is caused by:


149) Planting trees on public and common land is known as:


150) An example for in-situ biological conservation method is to establish:


151) The Earth Summit held at Rio-de-Janeiro in 1992 resulted into:


152) Approximate percentage of endemic flowering plants in India is:


153) Select the correct statement:


154) Which of the following is correct?


155) Which of the following is incorrect?


156) What is Biodiversity referred to as?


157) Threats to biodiversity comes from


158) Which species is most likely to be positively selected by natural selection?


159) What is the decreasing order of number of animal species, as far as India is concerned?


160) The diversity of organism sharing the same habitat or community is termed as _____


161) Which one of the following are two hot spots of biodiversity in India?


162) What is the affect of species diversity, as one moves from high to low altitudes.


163) Which of the following is not an example of in-situ conservation?


164) The numbers of National Parks, Biosphere and Wildlife sanctuaries of India were


165) In which part of biosphere reserves human settlement is permissible?


166) As estimated by Robert May, what is the total number of species present on earth?


167) Species diversity ______ as we move away from the equator towards the poles.


168) What are the total number of hot spots present in the world?


169) Where was the World Summit on Sustainable Development held?


170) Which of the following phyla has largest number of species?


171) What is the approximate percentage of the earth covered by terrestrial hot spots?


172) Which is not an objective of Convention on Biodiversity?


173) Sacred groves in India are found in


174) The term "The Evil Quartet" is related with


175) Given below are four statements (A-D) each with one or two blanks. Select the option which correctly fills up the blanks in two statements.
A. The number of species per unit area is called ___(i)___ and number of individuals of different species represent ___(ii)____.
B. Sunderlal Bahuguna started the ___(i)___ which resisted deforestation.
C. ___(i)___ contains a record of animals and plants which are known to be in danger and it is maintained by ___(ii)___.
D. ___(i)___ diversity is species diversity in a given community and ___(ii)___ diversity is present in ranges of communities over a total geographical area.


176) The narrowly utilitarian arguments for conserving include which of the following from the given list?
I. Industrial products like dyes, lubricants.
II. Ecosystem services like photosynthesis.
III. Pollinators layer of bees, birds and bats.
IV. Firewood, fiber and construction material.
V. The aesthetic pleasure of walking through thick.
VI. Products of medicinal importance.
VII. Watching spring flowers in full bloom.
VIII. Our moral duty of care for the well-being of each species.


177) Which of the following is incorrectly matched?


178) Why are conservationists calling for immediate, and often expensive, action on behalf of endangered species and habitats?


179) Which of the following is NOT a benefit that humans receive from a biologically diverse world?


180) Which of the following is NOT associated with small populations?


181) The theory of island bio-geography was first formally proposed by


182) If log A = 4, z = 0.3 and log c = 0.8, what is log S?


183) In island bio-geography c =


184) Which of the following countries has the highest biodiversity?


185) Historically, island species have tended to become extinct faster than species living on a mainland. Which of the following reasons can not be used to explain this phenomenon?


186) An endemic species is


187) Conservation hot spots are best describes as


188) Most large whale species have been driven to the brink of extinction. Which of the following is the most accepted explanation for this situation?


189) A keystone species is one that


190) When the last member of a particular species dies, the species is said to be ________.


191) Which of these statement is true?


192) What is the difference between a threatened species and an endangered species?


193) What is sustainable use?


194) How much of the Earth's land surface have humans disturbed or degraded?


195) Which method of tree harvesting is least destructive if conducted properly?


196) According to conservation biologists, how much of the Earth's land surface should be strictly protected?


197) Which of the following countries has the most deforestation today?


198) The _______ encourages the division of protected areas into zones with different purposes and levels of human impact.


199) Fill up the blanks -
Initially ___A___ biodiversity hot spots were identified but subsequently nine more have been added to the list, bringing the total number of biodiversity hot spots in the world to ___B___. These hot spots are also regions of accelerated habitat loss. Three of these hot spots - Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, Indo-Burma and Himalaya - cover our country's exceptionally high biodiversity regions. Although all the biodiversity hot spots put together cover less than ___C___ % of the earth's land area, the number of species they collectively harbour is extremely high and strict protection of these hot spots could reduce the ongoing mass extinctions by almost ___D___%.


200) The concept of Hot-Spot was first introduced by


201) One of the following statements is incorrect with reference to biodiversity. Identify it


202) Biodiversity loss occurs due to -
A. Habitat loss and fragmentation
B. Co-extinction
C. Over-exploitation
D - Alien species invasion


203) The characters of a stable community -
A. It shall not show too much variations in year-to-year productivity.
B. It must be either resistance or resilient to seasonal disturbance.
C. It must be resistant to invasion by alien species.
D. None


204) The impacts of loss of biodiversity include -
A. Decrease in plant production.
B. Lowered resistance to environmental perturbation.
C. Increased variability in ecosystem processes like water use, pest/disease cycle, plants productivity.
D. None


205) The number of critically endangered animals and plants in India is


206) Which of the following statements describe natural extinction?
A. Extinctions abetted by human activities.
B. Slow replacement of existing species.
C. Also known as background extinction.
D. A small population is most likely to be extinct.


207) The reasons behind conserving biodiversity can be group into categories which include -
A. Narrowly utilitarian
B. Broadly utilitarian
C. Ethical utilitarian
D. No utilitarian


208) In situ strategies include -
A. Biosphere reserve
B. National park
C. Wildlife sanctuaries
D. Scared forest/lakes


209) Ex situ strategies include -
A. Botanical garden
B. Zoos
C. Seed/Pollen banks
D. Gene bank and tissue culture


210) A. More than 70 percent of all the species recorded are animals.
B. Out of every 10 animals on this planet, 7 are insects.
C. The number of fungi species in the world is more than the combined total of the species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
D. Number of fishes is very less than the that of mammals.


211) Sacred groves are found in -
A. Khasi and Jaintia Hills in Meghalaya
B. Aravalli Hills of Rajasthan
C. Western ghat regions of Karnataka and Maharashtra and Sarguja, Chanda and Bastar areas of Madhya Pradesh
D. None


212) According to the concept of species area relations


213) A species area relation is used by ecologists to


214) What effect, if any, would the extinction of a mutualistic pollinator have on the plant it pollinates?


215) Which is/are correct about Amazon rain forest?
A. It is called Lungs of the planet.
B. It is being cut and cleared for cultivating soya beans or for conversion to grasslands for raising beef cattle.
C. The largely trophical rain forest in South America has highest biodiversity on earth.
D. It harbours probably million of species.


216) Select the correct statement(s) -
A. India has more than 50,000 genetically different strains of rice.
B. India has 1000 varieties of mango.
C. The genetic variation in Rauwolfia vomitoria can be in terms of conc and potency of reserpine.
D. The tropical rain forest initially covered 14% of the land surface of earth, but now they cover only 6% of the land area.


217) An exotic species that is introduced to a new area, spreads rapidly and eliminates native species is called


218) The exotic species, introduced in India are


219) Which of the following fishes is exotic species introduced in India for aquaculture


220) More than 25% of drugs are derived from plants. What benefits does this describe?


221) Exploring molecular, genetic and species-level diversity for products of economic importance like medicines is called


222) Modern Ex situ conservation includes


223) Ex situ conservation is used for the conservation of


224) Select incorrect statement


225) Which of the following is an example of alien species invading a new ecosystem resulting in biodiversity losses?


226) In recent years the number of species driven to extinction has increased dramatically. Which of the following is not a reason for this?


227) Which parameter of a population do ecologists measure to assess extinction risk for a population?


228) When a species goes extinct in one area, it is often desirable to reintroduce the species from other populations. A major problem with this approach is that


229) Why do species extinctions matter?


230) _______ ecology is a sub-discipline of conservation biology the goal of which is to mend damaged and degraded ecosystems.


231) Which of the following methods could be used to restore a population of animals from a few male and female individuals.


232) Of the following organisms which has the highest conservation priority?


233) Which of the following statements is true concerning the relationship between humans and the rest of the living world?


234) The number of species that become extinct due to habitat destruction is greatest in _________ ecosystems with many ______ species.


235) Major causes of human-induced extinctions of species include all of the following except


236) Which of the following is not a reason to protect biodiversity?


237) Which of the following is not currently a major cause of species extinctions?


238) A species that is found only in a particular region is said to be


239) Which of the following statements about species area relationships and their consequences for extinction rates is false?


240) Which of the following is true?
A. The biological wealth of our plant has been declining rapidly and the accusing finger is clearly pointing to human activities.
B. The colonization of tropical pacific Island by humans is said t be have led to the extinction of more than 2,000 species of native bird.
C. The IUCN Red list (2004) documents the extinction of 784 species in last 500 years.


241) Which one of the following is false about Habitat loss and fragmentation?


242) Term biodiversity was utilized to describe the combined diversity at all the levels of biological organization by


243) Global species diversity and land area covered by India with respect to world is


244) The cause/causes for species richness of tropics is/are


245) Anthropogenic extinction is called


246) Amazon rain forests are considered as lungs of the planet as they contribute _______ of the total oxygen in the earth's atmosphere.


247) Introduction of alien species into new area possess a threat to extinction of indigenous species due to


248) There are genetic variation shown by medicinal plant Rauwolfia Vomitoria. This plant growing in which one of the following regions.


249) Arrange the following places in increasing order of biodiversity of species of birds and select the right option.


250) From the following statements you have to select the right option of right statements what were shown by David Tilman. Who performed long term ecosystem experiment using outdoor plots.
A. Plots with more species showed less year-to-year variation in total biomass.
B. Plots with less species showed less year-to-year variation in total biomass.
C. Increased diversity contributed to higher productivity.
D. Plots with more species showed more year-to-year variation in total rainfall.


251) How many percent of the earth's land area is covered by all the biodiversity hot spots.


252) Select a correct match


253) Which of the following is false?


254) In the formula log S = log C + Z log A, ecologist have discovered that the value of z lies in the range of


255) Which of the following does not belong to The Evil Quartet


256) Which of the following is correct?
A. Three of the hot spot - Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, Indoburma and Himalaya cover our country's exceptionally high biodiversity region.
B. India now has 14 biosphere reserves, 90 national parks and 448 wildlife sancturies.
C. Ex situ conservation - In this approach, threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in special setting.


257) The world summit on sustainable development held in 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa, how many countries pledged their commitment to achieve by 2010.


258) How much times have forests been lost in the tropics compared to the temperate region


259) Approximately what proportion of the global land surface is used for agriculture and grazing by the world's 6 billion people?


260) What is the primary reason for targeting 'biodiversity hot spots' for conservation?


261) Given below are three statements (A-C) each with one or two blanks. Select the option which correctly fills up the blanks.
Statements:
Ecologists and evolutionary biologists have proposed various hypotheses; some important ones are
A. Speciation is generally a function of time ___I___ regions were subjected to frequent glaciations in the past, ___II___ have remained relatively undisturbed for millions of years and thus, had a long evolutionary time for species diversification.
B. ____III____ environments, unlike temperate ones, are less seasonal, relatively more constant and predictable. Such constant environments promote niche specialization and lead to a greater species diversity.
C. There is more solar energy available in the ____IV____, which contributes to higher productivity; this is turn might contribute indirectly to greater diversity.


262) Which of the following statement is true?
A. Logo of WWF-N is Red Panda.
B. Organization responsible for maintaining Red Data Book/Red List is IUCN.
C. Genetic diversity in agricultural crops is threatened by introduction of high yielding varieties.
D. In India, we find mangoes with different flavours, colours, fiber-content, sugar content and even shelf-life. The large variation is on account of genetic diversity.
E. The world biodiversity day is celebrated annually on 29th December.


263) Which hypothesis suggests ecosystems are like aeroplane wings where flight (ecosystem functioning) may or may not be compromised depending upon which species are lost


264) Sacred groves are specially useful in


265) Select the correct statement about biodiversity


266) India has only 2.4% of the world's land area but its share of the global species diversity is


267) Total number of identified biodiversity hotspots in the world is


268) Kanha National Park is located in _______ and is famous for ______.


269) Which one of the following areas in India, is a hotspot of biodiversity


270) The highest number of species in the world is represented by


271) Maximum nutritional diversity is found in the group.


272) Which one of the following is not used for ex situ plant conservation?


273) Humans have introduced alien species into the environment in all these ways except _____.


274) An example of ex situ conservation is


275) A species facing extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future is called


276) The organization which publishes the Red List of species is


277) Read the statements regarding a stable community and choose the correct option.
I. Must be resistant to occasional disturbances.
II. Should show much variation in productivity from year to year.
III. Must be resistant to invasions by alien species.


278) Find the wrongly matched pair.


279) Find the wrongly matched pair.


280) The animal species controlling the ecosystem functioning is known as


281) An area is declared as "Hot spot" when


282) Cryopreservation of gametes of threatened species in viable and fertile condition can be referred to as


283) In which of the following both pairs have correct combination?


284) The species confined to a particular region and not found elsewhere is termed as


285) The largest tiger reserve in India is


286) Oran is a


287) India is one of the 'twelve' megadiversity countries with _______ of genetic resources of the world


288) Which one of the following is not a major characteristic feature of biodiversity hot spots?


289) What is common to the following plants? Nepenthes, Psilotum, Rauwolfia and Aconitum


290) Amongst the animal groups given below, which one has the highest percentage of endangered species?


291) For frugivorous birds and mammals in the tropical forests of different continents, Z (slope of the line/regression coefficient) is found to be


292) During the analyzing the surface area relationship among very large area like entire continents, the slope of the line is found much steeper and the Z values ranges


293) Most of the species that are yet undiscovered are probably


294) Which of the following is the most important cause of animals and plants being driven to extinction?


295) How many hot spots of biodiversity in the world have been identified till date by Norman Myers?


296) Which of the following is correctly matched?


297) Red list contains data or information on


298) Which of the following National Parks is home to the famous musk deer or hangul?


299) Which one of the following is an example of ex situ conservation?


300) Chipko movement is concerned with


301) A renewable exhaustible natural resource is