Practice Test


1) Annual growth rate for developing countries is:


2) Study of interrelationship between living organisms and their environment is called:


3) Plants and animals living in a given area constitute:


4) Carrying capacity of an environment is determined by:


5) If there is a large gap between birth rate and death rate in Haryana we can infer that Haryana would tend to have:


6) Demography is the study of statistics that deals with:


7) Parameter for describing a population is:


8) Most thickly populated state in India is:


9) Most thinly populated state in India is:


10) Which of the following is monogamous:


11) Which of the following is polygamous?


12) Which of the following lives in flocks?


13) Animal found in herd is:


14) The human population first began to grow exponentially at the time of:


15) About how many people starve to death each day?


16) The growth of human population is most rapid in:


17) What constitutes the most important boundary between different species?


18) Offspring of a stallion and janet is called:


19) Population density is expressed by:


20) Fingers and legs are shorter in colder regions. It is:


21) Population whose members reproduce asexually are termed:


22) Population whose members reproduce sexually are termed:


23) The study of interactions of an individual organism or a single species with the living and non-living component of its environment is:


24) Ecological studies of plants were first started by:


25) Synecology refers to the ecological study of:


26) All the living organisms on earth constitute:


27) Individuals of the same species in a particular locality constitute:


28) Migration refers to:


29) Which of the following is an example of protoco-operation?


30) Gametophyte and sporophyte stages of a fern plant should ecologically be considered as:


31) Which of the following is related with synecology?


32) Competition is most severe in two:


33) Territory is defended against:


34) Which of the following shows the polymorphism?


35) Cross-fertilization in plants is a kind of:


36) An interaction between two or more organisms when the resource necessary for them are limited, refers to:


37) Sub-groups of a population capable of interbreeding are called as:


38) In red deer, the herd is:


39) Biotic potential is counteracted by:


40) The carrying capacity is determined by its:


41) A population can grow exponentially:


42) Which of the following does not directly affect biotic potential?


43) Which of the following chemical compound helps in transmitting the message to other species of members?


44) Sympatric population cannot be isolated by:


45) Term species in ecology refers to:


46) Population surge 230 years ago was due to:


47) The levelling of an S-shaped curve describing population growth is caused by:


48) The abundance of a species population within its habitat is called:


49) Mule is produced by breeding:


50) When population reaches carrying capacity:


51) Pheromones secreted by certain exocrine cutaneous gland affect:


52) Area covered by members of a species in search of food and mates is called:


53) Crow also incubates the eggs of:


54) Pheromones of insects are:


55) Population density of terrestrial organisms is measured in terms of individuals per:


56) Population density of aquatic organisms is expressed in terms of individuals per:


57) Which of the following factors is not determinant of population size?


58) The dominant individual in a herd is:


59) Tiger has a:


60) Which of these helps in the survival of a species?


61) Honey bees perform dancing motion to signal:


62) Emigration affects population in:


63) Brown skinned human race:


64) The members or a form of polymorphic species:


65) Cooperative interaction is essential for prepetuation of:


66) The aggregate of processes that determine the size and composition of any population is termed as:


67) When a tiger attacks cheetals, the stag with best antlers is surrounded by other individuals to protect it. It is an example of:


68) Which of the following leads a solitary life?


69) Family formation is a characteristic feature of:


70) Which among the following does not lead a monogamous life?


71) Rats are:


72) Ants communicate through:


73) Altruistic behaviour is found in:


74) The factor which does not affect the population size is:


75) Rapid decline in a population due to high mortality rate is:


76) According to 1991 Census, urban population of India was about:


77) Genetically adapted population to a particular habit is:


78) A fertile hybrid between captive tiger and lioness is:


79) Which of the following chemical compound helps in transmitting the message to other members of the same species?


80) The population tends to increase as individuals are added by:


81) The population tends to decrease by:


82) The most distinct and easily observation unit is:


83) The occurrence of two forms among the organisms of same kind is known as:


84) A green alga Volvox, a colonial form consists of over:


85) The chemicals of intraspecific communication are:


86) Human society is a product of:


87) Which of the following morphological forms is also known as ecophenes?


88) The relationship between one species and another within a community that has evolved through interactions is based upon:


89) The interaction among organisms in a community called as biotic factors influence:


90) According to the species equilibrium theory, smaller island have fewer species because they have:


91) Competition between individuals of the species is called:


92) Which of the following levels of organisation emphasizes the structural aspects in terms of relation and requirement of organisms?


93) Synecology is study of:


94) The leaves are absent in the xerophyte:


95) Which of the following feature is found in xerophytes?


96) Halophytes growing on mud are called as:


97) Euhalophytes grow where the concentration of NaCI ranges:


98) The product arising as a result of geographical response of an ecospecies to a particular habitat is the definition of:


99) Members of biological species are potentially able to:


100) Which of the following niches is concerned with the trophic position of an organism?


101) Plants growing on rocks are called as:


102) Plants growing on cold soil are called as:


103) Mark the free floating hydrophyte:


104) Mark the rooted submerged hydrophyte:


105) The mesophytes are characterised by:


106) Mark the true xerophyte:


107) The keystone species in an ecosystem are those which:


108) The sphere of living matter together with water, air and soil on the earth is called:


109) Plants with irreversible and genetically fixed adaptations are known as:


110) Species which has a restricted distribution is called:


111) Study of communities, especially their environmental relationship and structure, is known as:


112) When the organisms live together in such a manner that one organism is benefited while the other remains unaffected. This type of association is called:


113) The part of earth and atmosphere supporting life is:


114) Term 'biocoenosis' was coined by:


115) Number of immigration is more than emigration and death is lower than natality. Growth curve of population will show:


116) Which one of the following have raised cheek bones, oblique eyes and yellowish skin colour?


117) Scent producing glands are:


118) Pheromone is:


119) Percentage ratio of natality over mortality is:


120) Human population shows:


121) The process of mating of individuals which are more closely related than the average of the population to which they belong is called:


122) Adaptation of a species is its:


123) Asymptote is a stage when a population is:


124) Two species cannot occupy the same niche. This law is known as:


125) In which one of the following habitat, does the diurnal temperature of soil surface vary most?


126) Broad-leaved forest oak are found in:


127) Prolonged liberal irrigation of agricultural field likely to create the problem of:


128) At which latitude, heat gain through insolation approximately equals heat loss through terrestrial radiation?


129) Animals have the innate ability to escape from predation. Examples for the same are given below. Select the incorrect example:


130) There exists a close association between the alga and the fungus within a lichen. The fungus:


131) Identify the correctly matched pair:


132) The ability of the Venus fly trap to capture insects is due to:


133) Sunderban contains mainly:


134) Pneumatophores are present/common in:


135) Which one of the following correctly represents an organism and its ecological niche?


136) Humidity in atmosphere decreases rate of:


137) Niche overlap indicates:


138) Annual migration does not occur in the case of:


139) Geometric representation of age structure is a characteristic of:


140) The population of an insect species shows an explosive increase in number during rainy season followed by its disappearance at the end of the season. What does this show?


141) Which one of the following is categorised as a parasite in true sense?


142) Consider the following four conditions (a-d) and select the correct pair of them as adaptation to environment in desert lizards.
The conditions:
(a) Burrowing in soil to escape high temperature
(b) Losing heat rapidly from the body during high temperature
(c) Bask in sun when temperature is low
(d) Insulating body due to thick fatty dermis


143) The ecological levels of organisation in terms of complexity are arranged in the order:


144) The role of an organism in the ecological system is known as:


145) The kangaroo rat and camel adapt to dry and hot conditions in the deserts by:


146) Adaptation to low temperature and freezing in animals occurs due to the production of:


147) Which of the following are important components of environment?


148) Who is regareded as father of ecology in India:


149) The word ecology was given by:


150) Which of the following is correct order of biological organisation ranging from organism to biosphere?


151) The basic unit of study in ecology is/are:


152) What is landscape?


153) On the basis of variation in mean temperature along latitude, the temperate climatic region is at:


154) Ecological niche of an organism represents:


155) Temperature decreases with increasing height in troposphere upto:


156) Phenology refers to the timing of season activites of plants in relation to changes in environmental condition. In many animals, migration, hibernation and reproductive behaviour are controlled by:


157) The limnetic zone is:


158) The individual plants as well as plant communities adapt to different light intensities. The plants are shade tolerant are called:


159) Which of following show periodic type of migration in search of feeding ground?


160) Batesian mimicry is shown by:


161) Which of the following is an example of physiological xerophyte?


162) Ecology is basically concerned with four levels of biology organizations. These levels are


163) Which of the following accounts for the formation of major biomes?


164) Basic unit of ecological hierarchy is


165) A regional ecological unit having a specific climate is


166) Major biomes of India include


167) What are the key elements that lead to so much variation in the physical and chemical conditions of different habitats?


168) False statement is


169) Which of the following is the most ecologically relevant environmental factor?


170) Select the false statement


171) A few organisms can tolerate and thrive a wide range of temperature. Such animals are called _______. A vast majority of animals are restricted to a narrow range of temperature. Such animals are called ______.


172) Snow leopards are not found in Kerala forests. Which factor is responsible for it?


173) Next to temperature, which is the most important factor influencing the life of organisms?


174) Life


175) Each of the following is an important factor in determining the productivity of fresh water lake except


176) Which of the following is not a part of an organisms physical environment?


177) Which of the following statements is false?


178) I. Organisms living in oceans, lakes and rivers face water-related problems.
II. Euryhaline can tolerate a wide range of salinities.
III. Stenohaline are restricted to a narrow range of salinities.
IV. No fresh water animals cannot live for long in sea water but sea animals can live in fresh water for long times because of osmotic balance.
V. The salt concentration is less than 5% in inland water, 30-35% in sea and > 100% in some hypersaline lagoons.


179) Which of the following might contribute to determining an organisms habitat?


180) The location of terrestrial biomes is strongly influenced by


181) The two sides of a given mountain have the same latitude and altitude. Are they likely to have the same climate?


182) Seasons are influenced by


183) In regions of hot temperatures and wet climate, you will most likely find ______ biomes, whereas in the regions of hot temperature and dry climate you will find ______.


184) The ultimate source of energy for all ecosystems on earth is


185) Animals having a built-in thermostat to maintain constant body temperature are


186) Which of the following statements is false?
I. Light is essential for life to exist on the earth.
II. Many species of small plants under the canopy to tall trees in forest show optimal use of available light due to having large sized antenna and higher number of thylakoids.
III. UV-rays are not harmful for many organisms.
IV. Photoperiodic requirement is essential for many plants for flowering.
V. Sun is the source of light and temperature on land.
VI. Red algae can live in deep sea water because of having pigment, phycoerythrin.


187) Deep (> 500 m) in the oceans inhabitants are not aware of existence of a celestial source of energy called


188) Many animals use the diurnal and seasonal variations in light intensity and photoperiod as cues for timing of


189) The nature of soil in a given area is independent of


190) Find out the false one


191) Percolation and water holding capacity of soil is dependent upon


192) To a large extent, the vegetation of an area is determined by


193) Which of the factors dictates the types of animals in a habitat


194) Which of the following factors often determine the type of benthic animals that thrive in aquatic environment?


195) Which of the following term implies the maintenance of relatively constant physical and chemical conditions within organisms?


196) Human can maintain homeostasis through


197) Which of the following statement is false?


198) I. Thermoregulation, osmoregulation and excretion are mechanisms that moderate change in the body.
II. 99% animals and almost all plants are confomers.
III. Heat loss or heat gain is a function of surface area.
IV. Thermoregulation energetically is least expensive process for many organisms like shrews and humming birds.
V. 99% animals are thermoregulators.
VI. Archaebacteria cannot tolerate high temperature.


199) Why small animals are mostly not found in polar areas?


200) I. Conformers are the organisms that cannot maintain a constant internal environment.
II. 99% animals and nearly all plants cannot maintain their constant internal environments.
III. During the course of evolution, the cost and benefits of maintaining a constant internal environment are discarded.
IV. Conformity is a condition in which an external challenge induces parallel internal changes.
V. Regulation is a condition in which external challenge elicits compensatory action to maintain the internal environment.


201) Which one is correct?
I. In a hot climate reptiles can maintain a constant body temperature in the day by behavioural regulation.
II. The body temperature of thermoconformers changes with ambient temperature.
III. In aquatic osmoconformers, the osmolarity of body fluids changes with that of ambient water.
IV. Small animals have a larger surface area relative to their volume, therefore tend to lose body heat very fast when it is cold outside, then they have to expand much energy to generate body heat through metabolism.


202) Choose the odd out w.r.t. structure formed in the different organisms during suspended phase.


203) Which of the following animals would you expect to have the most efficient kidneys?


204) Whales, the world's largest living mammals, live in the ocean, but there are no very small aquatic mammals why?


205) Kangaroo rats


206) Which of the following is an important adaptation of animals to cold climate


207) Elephants use their ears to dump heat to the environment. What mechanisms might they employ to increase heat loss from ears?


208) Find out the false one


209) I. Basking by desert lizards in sun.
II. Hiding in burrows by some animals.
III. Wearing of woolen clothes.
IV. Thermal gaping.
The above are examples of


210) Choose the odd one w.r.t. adaptations in the organisms


211) Symptoms of altitude sickness include all except


212) Acclimatization (compensatory mechanisms) to altitude sickness includes all except


213) Organisms have evolved various mechanisms to maintain homeostasis to perform its physiological and biochemical functions. This can be obtained through


214) Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur) hosts thousands of migrating birds from Siberia and other extremely cold northern regions. This park is located in


215) Adaptation is an attribute of organisms that enables them to survive and reproduce in their habitats. Adaptation


216) The Kangaroo rat in North American desert do not drink water. How does it survive in such xeric condition


217) Which of the following statement is false w.r.t. adaptations?


218) Which of the following is false?


219) If in a pond there are 20 lotus last year and through reproduction 8 new plants are added, taking current population to 28. The birth rate per year is


220) If 4 individuals in a laboratory population of 40 fruitflies died during a specific time (a week) interval, the death rate in the population per week is


221) Population density of terrestrial organism is measured in terms of per


222) Population density of aquatic animals in some waterbody is measured in term of per


223) Density of a population (D) is


224) Total number of individual of a specific in an area is called


225) The size of Siberian cranes at Bharatpur wetlands in any year is


226) In an area, there are 200 Parthenium and a single huge banyan tree. Which of the following conclusions is correct


227) Birth rate is 100, death rate is 10. Number of individuals in population group is 1000. What is the percentage of natural growth rate?


228) If the age distribution (percent individuals of a given age or age group) is plotted for population, the resulting structure is called


229) The age distribution of a population is determined by


230) Parameters related to age structure include


231) The age structure of a population is its


232) The age structure of a population influences population growth because


233) The reproductive value of an individual is greatest


234) If most individuals in a population are young, why is the population likely to grow rapidly in the future?


235) What four factors define population growth?


236) Size of population can be decreased by


237) Which of the following is not a factor that would limit the growth of a population?


238) A population of 100 individuals has a doubling time of 25 years. What size will this population be in 100 years?


239) Which of the following statements is correct?


240) Allen's rule is related to


241) For which of the following cases, population density can be easily determined by utilizing non-biological parameter?


242) Population growth of a species is not related to which of the following parameters?


243) Which of the following can be a limit on population growth?


244) Assuming that an animal generates heat at a rate proportional to its volume and can radiate heat at a rate proportional to its body surface area. Which of the following would be best at maintaining its body temperature in a cold climate


245) Exponential growth occurs when there is


246) Logistic growth occurs when there is


247) As the number of individuals approaches the carrying capacity of a population, which of the following is predicted by the sigmoidal growth curve?


248) Organisms with very high intrinsic growth rates have


249) A population with a larger proportion of older individuals than younger ones will likely


250) What is the fate of a population that is dominated by younger individuals and lacking older individuals?


251) Biotic potential refers to


252) Periodic departure and return is known as


253) An "Urn" shaped population age pyramid represents


254) Vital index of a population is


255) A behavioural strategy of adaptation is called echolocation is found in


256) Which is not related to S-shaped population curve?


257) Which of the following is correct?


258) The logistic population growth model, dN/dt = rN (K - N/K), describes a populations growth when an upper limit to growth is assumed. This upper limit to growth is know as the population's _________, and as N gets larger, dN/dt ______.


259) I. In a population growth rate curve the lag phase represents the period when a population is adjusting to a new environment.
II. In a population growth rate curve the steepest part of growth phase represents the period when a population is growing exponentially.
III. In the stationary phase of a population growth rate curve the population is in dynamic equilibrium.
IV. Human have changed the carrying capacity of the earth.
Which of the above statements are correct?


260) Which of these is an explanation of why a population can fluctuate once it has reached carrying capacity?


261) Which is not an assumption for logistic growth?


262) If B = 0.55, D = 0.45 and N = 1000, then dN/dt = ______ .


263) Choose the correct option


264) Which of the following is true concerning exponential growth?


265) The population growth equation describes a population that


266) The growth rate of a population in an unlimited environment


267) Which of the following is not an assumption of the logistic model for population growth?


268) Which of the following is true for the carrying capacity (K)?


269) Scholars caught, marked and released 80 fishes in a pond. Later 100 fish were caught at random. 40 of them were marked. The number of fishes in the pond is


270) A broad-based, pyramid shaped age structure is characteristic of a population that is


271) A population grows rapidly at first and then levels off at carrying capacity of it is


272) Carrying capacity for a population is estimated at 500; the population size is currently 400; and rmax = 0.01. What is dN/dt?


273) A country that has a stable population is characterized by an age structure that is _______.


274) Some organisms reproduce only once in their lifetime because they


275) Darwin judged the fitness of an individual in term of


276) I. Populations evolve to maximise their reproductive fitness, also called Darwinian fitness (higher r value), in the habitat in which they live.
II. The population growth rate r is inversely related to generation time.
III. The housefly, which has a short life-span and produces a large number of eggs, could be considered as a low r max species.
IV. Under a particular set of selection pressures, organisms evolve towards the most efficient reproductive strategies.
V. Life history traits of organisms have evolved in relation to the constraints imposed by biotic and abiotic factors in their habitat.
Select the false statement


277) Which one is true?


278) Which one of the following is incorrect?


279) Choose the odd one out w.r.t. parasitism


280) Which of the following is correct about host-specific parasites?


281) Which of the following is false?
I. The human liver fluke, a nematode parasite, depends on two intermediate hosts (snail and fish) to complete its life cycle.
II. The malaria parasite needs a vector (mosquito) to spread to other parasite.
III. The female mosquito is not considered parasite, however it needs our blood for reproduction.
IV. In case of brood parasitism, the eggs of parasitic birds (e.g. cuckoo) are not detected and ejected from the nest because of parasite's eggs resemble the hosts eggs in morphology and colour.
V. A population of frogs protected from all predators would increase indefinitely.


282) The evolutionary reason a given organism interacts with another organism is to


283) Which of the following is not a form of mutualism?


284) Plants that produce fruits are part of a _________ mutualism.


285) Parasitism is an example of a ______ interaction.


286) Pathogens are classified as


287) The evolution of the animal immune system was probably driven by


288) An indirect competition for shared resources, such as a particular nutrient, is known as _____ competition.


289) Which of the following statements about competition is false?


290) When two similar species live in the same area, they may evolve to become more different in order to


291) Do humans exhibit any mutualistic relationships?


292) Human cells contain mitochondria, which are responsible for producing the energy needed by our cells. Remember that the ancestors of mitochondria may once have been free-living prokaryotes. If mitochondria were still considered to be separate organisms within our cells, which of the following would best describe our relationship with them?


293) Cowbirds lay their eggs in the nests of smaller birds. The fast-developing cowbird chicks hatch first, then push the other baby chicks out of the nest as they hatch. The cowbird is classified as a


294) Pollinator mutualism are special interactions involving ______, which receive food or a place to lay eggs, and ______, which receive pollen from others of their kind.


295) Consumers can alter which of the following characteristics of victims?


296) The level of competition between species depends on


297) Interactions among organisms can have effects at which of the following levels?


298) In lichens, fungus and blue-green algae live together without causing significant harm to one another. Attempts to grow either the algae or the fungi independently result in the death of the organism. This interaction is an example of


299) If a new predator is introduced to an area with a type of prey that is limited in number, the prey species is likely to


300) Human interference has caused ecological imbalances by


301) Mutualistic relationships


302) Which of the following statements is true?
I. Many secondary compounds are produced by plants for the purpose of discouraging herbivores (Grazers and Browsers).
II. Predators generally are high on lethality and low on intimacy.
III. Predators in nature are prudent because they do not exploit their prey.
IV. Parasites are low on lethality and high on intimacy.


303) Which one is a physiological adaptation to cold climate?
I. Small body.
II. Accumulating glycerol and anti freezing proteins.
III. Accumulating ice nucleating protein.
IV. Hibernation.


304) Which of the following is not a way a parasite can spend its life?


305) Predators are important for a natural ecosystems because they -
I. Keep prey population under control.
II. Helps in maintaining species diversity.
III. Are used in biological control method.
IV. They reduced intensity of competition among completing prey species.


306) I. Some species of insects and frogs are cryptically-coloured (Camouflaged).
II. Some animals are poisonous.
III. Some animals (e.g. monarch butterfly) are distasteful due to having chemical in their bodies.
The above adaptations are against


307) The population explosion that occurred shortly after the prickly pear cactus (opuntia) introduced to Australia in early 1920's is an example of


308) What percentage of all insects is known to be phytophagous?


309) For the defence against predators, butterflies become highly distasteful due to having certain chemical in their bodies. What is the source of the chemical?


310) Which of the following is not an example of a defence used by plants against herbivores?


311) Which of the following is the example of biological control?


312) A secondary compound is not a part of the plants


313) The prickly pear cactus became unusually abundant after its introduction in Australia, because it


314) No predator become proficient at acquiring prey because


315) You never see cattle or goats browsing on weed calotropis. Why?


316) According to Darwin which of the following is a potent force in organic evolution?


317) Which of the following is not entirely true fact?


318) In certain shallow lake of South America, the visiting flamingos and resident fishes compete for _______ as their food.


319) Two organisms that use the same resources when those sources are in short supply are said to be


320) What is the type of ecological relationship that can involve either members of the same species or different species and in which both participants are harmed?


321) Two species of barnacles vie for space in the intertidal zone. The one that remains is


322) The interaction between smaller barnacle Chthamalus and larger barnacle Balanus in intertidal zone is


323) Find out the false one?


324) Connell's elegant field experiments are related to


325) The American MacArthur observed, in 1985 that 5 species of similar warblers coexist on spruce tree because they


326) Which ecological unit or relationship is least related to abiotic factors?


327) The overall role of an organism in its environment is called a(n) _______.


328) Select the false one


329) The fitness of one species (measured in terms of its 'r', the intrinsic rate to increase) is significantly lower in the presence of another species. The above phenomenon refers to


330) When resources are limited, the competitively superior species eventually eliminate the other species. It is relatively


331) Community its


332) Population dynamics is related to


333) In small isolated tribal population


334) Term homeostasis in an ecosystem refers to


335) The spread of opuntia was controlled by


336) Competition for light, nutrients and space is most severe between


337) A bird introduced from another country became a serious pest due to


338) At asymptote stage, the population is


339) Changing population is


340) Migration in birds is guided in part by


341) Which of the following was not usually observed by G. F. Gause in his studies on interspecific competition?


342) Which of the following is correct?


343) If two sympatric species occupy very similar niche under natural condition, one would expect


344) Which one of the following populations will show the greatest population increase in the next year, assuming exponential growth?


345) When does competitive exclusion theory state?


346) Through resource partitioning


347) Which of the following is not correct?


348) Commensalism is the interaction in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited. Which of the following is the example of commenaslim?


349) A female fig wasp enters the syconium of a fig, pollinates the flowers, and lays eggs in the ovaries of some of the flowers. The young larvae grow up, eat (and kill) some, but not all, of the seeds, and complete their life cycle. The fig is completely dependent on fig wasps to pollinate its flowers, and the fig wasp requires figs to complete its life cycle. The interaction between figs and fig wasps has aspects of


350) The most spectacular and evolutionarily fascinating examples of mutualism is found in


351) An example of species - Specific co-evolution is certain plant species and the single species of animal that pollinates the plant. This type beneficial system is the safeguard against


352) Which of the following plants employs 'sexual deceit' to get pollination done by a species of bee?


353) An example of species-specific co-evolution is


354) Resource partitioning includes


355) If a population grow exponentially doubles in size in 3 years, what is the intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the population


356) A species whose distribution is restricted to small geographical area due to the presence of a comparatively superior species, expands its distribution when the competing species is experimentally removed. This phenomenon is called


357) Ecologists say that a niche is like a species ________, while habitat is like its ________.


358) Consider the following statements A - D each with one or two blanks.
A. Bears go into ___(1)____ during winter to ___(2)___ cold weather.
B. A conical age pyramid with a broad base represents ___(3)___ human population.
C. A wasp pollinating a fig flower is an example of ___(4)____.
D. An area with high levels of species richness is known as ___(5)____.
Which one of the following options, gives the correct fill ups for the respective blank numbers from (1) to (5) in the statements?


359) Which graph correctly depicts the rate of respiration of a non-hibernating mammal living in cold climate?


360) Large Woody Vines are more commonly found in


361) Which one of the following is categorized as a parasite in true sense?


362) Consider the following four conditions (a-d) and select the correct pair of them as adaptation to environment in desert lizards.
A. Burrowing in soil to escape high temperature
B. Losing heat rapidly from the body during high temperature
C. Bask in sun when temperature is low
D. Insulating body due to thick fatty dermis


363) Natural selection operates at


364) In an age pyramid, the number of individuals of reproductive age is lesser than prereproductive but higher than post reproductive ones. The population is


365) Verhulst-Pearl logistic growth pattern is


366) The interaction is detrimental to both the species, in


367) The association of Staphylococcus and Penicillium is


368) The association between clown fish and sea anemone is the same as between


369) In growth pattern (1 - N/K) is


370) A population growth becomes asymptote when population density


371) When the value of 'r' is significantly low as compared to another species, it is better known by


372) Which of the following is most appropriately defined?


373) What are "large undisturbed areas where wild life is protected in its natural habitat"?


374) The growth rate of a population during the exponential phase is ________ and during the maximum stationary phase of growth are ______.


375) The animals that rely on the heat from environment than metabolism to raise their body temperature are, in strict sense called


376) A biologist studied the population of rats in barn. He found that the average natality was 250, average mortality 240, immigration 20 and emigration 30. The net increase in population is


377) In 2005, for each of the 14 million people present in a country 0.028 were born and 0.008 died during the year. Using exponential equation, the number of people present in 2015 is predicted as


378) Formation of tropical forests needs mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation as


379) If a population of 50 Paramoecium present in a pool increases to 150 after an hour, what would be the growth rate of population?


380) If a population of 50 Paramoecium present in a pool increases to 150 after an hour, what would be the percent growth or birth rate per individual per hour?


381) Which one of the following organisms reproduces sexually only once in its life time?


382) Just as a person moving from Delhi to Shimla to escape the heat for the duration of hot summer, thousands of migratory birds from Siberia and other extremely cold northern regions move to


383) The success of mammals on earth is largely because


384) Which one of the following causes population explosion?


385) Go through the following statements.
A. All birds and mammals are capable of thermoregulation.
B. Majority of animals and nearly all plants cannot maintain a constant internal environment.
C. Shivering is a kind of exercise which produces heat and raises body temperature.
D. Very small animals are commonly found in polar regions as they have to spend less energy to generate body heat.
E. Diapause is a stage of suspended development seen in zooplanktons.
Which of the above statements regarding responses of organisms to abiotic factors is false?


386) Allen's rule applies to


387) Which statement explains why two species cannot permanently occupy the same ecological niche?


388) Breeding place of Flamingo (Hansawar) in India is


389) Hibernating animals have tissues containing mitochondria with a membrane protein that accelerates electron transport, while blocking the synthesis of ATP. What is the consequence of this?


390) Crash phase in population growth occurs in


391) In which of the following interactions both partners are adversely affected?


392) An association of individuals of different species living in the same habitat and having functional interactions is


393) The correct sentences in the following is/are


394) Which of the following is correct?


395) A population with equal number of birth and death will show


396) In case of scarcity of food or limitation of habitat, animal population is sure to starve and die. Human escape this disaster by


397) In a population per capital birth rate is 0.15 and per capital death rate is 0.08 during a unit time period. What is the value of r (intrinsic rate of natural increase) for the given population?


398) Which of the following is correct with reference to population growth?


399) Gause's principle of competitive exclusion states that


400) It is much easier for a small animal to run uphill than for a large animal because


401) When does the growth rate of population following the logistic model equal zero? The logistic model is given as dN/dt = rN (1 - N/K)


402) Which of the following is correct for r-selected species?


403) If '+' sign is assigned to beneficial interaction '-' sign to detrimental and '0' sign to neutral interaction, then the population interaction represented by '+' '-' refers to


404) The principle of competitive exclusion was stated by


405) Close resemblance in the appearance of Monarch butterfly and Queen butterfly is an example of


406) Amongst hydrophytes finely dissected leaves occur in


407) Place occupied by an organism in relation to environment is


408) When two related populations occupy geographically or spatially separate areas, they are called


409) The maximum growth rate occurs in


410) Interspecific interaction could be


411) The relationship between the alga Microcystis and the surroundings fauna correspond to


412) Climate is the


413) Basic unit of ecological hierarchy is


414) Population is the total number of


415) Ecotype is


416) American lakes visiting flamingoes and resident fishes compete for their common food …A… in the lake resources …B… limiting for competition to occur; in interference competition, the feeding efficiency of one species might be …C… due to the interfering and inhibitory presence of the other species, even if resources (food and space) are abundant
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


417) Mass of living matter at a trophic level in an area at any time is called


418) The term ‘Niche’ was first used by


419) In the association between two organisms, if one organism is benefitted and the other is not benefitted, this relationship is known as


420) Ephemerals are xerophytes that are


421) The size of the clay particle is less than


422) Major biomes of India includes
I. tropical rainforest
II. Alpine region
III. deciduous forest
IV. Desert
V.Himalayan region
VI.sea coast
Choose the correct combination for given question


423) Plats which behave as mesophytes in rainy season and as xerophytes in summers are called


424) A species inhabiting different geographical area is known as


425) A female fig wasp enters the syconium of a fig, pollinates the flowers and lays eggs in the ovaries of some of the flowers. The young larvae grow up, eat (and kill) some, but not all of the seeds and complete their life cycle.
The fig is completely dependent on fig wasps to pollinate its flowers and the fig wasp requires figs to complete its life cycle
The interaction between figs and fig wasps has aspects of
I.mutualism
II.host-parasite interaction
III.competition
IV.ammensalism
V.protocooperation Select the correct option


426) Population growth curve in most animals, except humans is


427) Nosema notabilis is an example for


428) Populations evolve to maximise their reproductive fitness are also called


429) Ecologist say that niche is like a species …A…, while habitat is like a …B… there A and B indicate


430) Temperature is very significant to the living beings because of


431) Mycorrhiza is a mutualistics association of plants root with fungi. The association occurs in


432) Autecology is the study of relationship between


433) Soil has five components. The proportions of different components are


434) ‘Cryptically-coloured’ (camouflaged) is a technique through which prey can


435) Competition for light, nutrients and space is most severe between


436) Many parasites have evolved to be …A… in such a way that both host and the parasite tend to …B… that is, if the host evolves special mechanisms for rejecting or resisting the parasite, the parasite has to evolve mechanisms to …C… and neutralize them, in order to be successful with the same host species.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


437) Which of the following is true regarding exponential growth?


438) Mycorrhizal represents an intimate mutualistic relationship between


439) If in a pond there are 20 lotus plants of last year and through reproduction 8 new plants are added. Then the birth rate is


440) Any species growing …A… growing under unlimited resource conditions can reach enormous population densities in a short time. Darwin showed how even …B… growing animal like elephant could reach enormous numbers in absence of check and that characteristics of organism is called C.
Choose the correct option for A, B or C respectively


441) July 11th is observed as


442) Light is


443) Pedology refers to study of


444) Submerged hydrophytes show


445) Under a particular set of selection pressure, organisms evolve towards the most …A… reproductive strategy. Some organisms breed only …B… in lifetime while others breed …C… in life time.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


446) Weather is the


447) Sea plants are an example of


448) Halophytes are


449) Adaptation may be


450) …A… regulators are able to maintain homeostasis by means which ensures constant body temperature, constant osmotic concentration, etc. All …B… and …C…. and is very few lower vertebrate and invertebrate species are indeed capable of such regulation (thermoregulation and osmoregulation)
Evolutionary biologists believe that the ‘success’ of mammals is largely due to their ability to maintain a constant body …D… and thrive whether they live in Antarctica or in the Sahara desert.
Choose the correct option for A, B, C and D


451) The physiological capacity to produce offsprings is called


452) How many horizons are present in the soil profile?


453) In … phase population adopt itself to new environment and starts to increase its number


454) The association of animals when both partners are benefitted is


455) Factors which determine to the large extent the vegetation of any area are
I. pH of soil
II. mineral composition of the soil
III.water holding capacity of soil
IV. weather condition Choose the correct option


456) The most ecologically relevant environmental factor


457) The closely related morphologically similar sympatric population, but reproductively isolated are designated as


458) Term ‘ecology’ was given by


459) Regulators are also called


460) Diapause is


461) The population of an insect species shows an explosive increase in numbers during rainy season followed by its disappearance at the end of the season. What does this show?


462) Which of the following is categorised as a parasite in true sense?


463) Ratio between mortality and natality is called


464) Behavioural adaptation to environment in desert lizards are
I. Burrowing soil
II. Losing heat during high temperature
III. Active during morning and evening
IV. Insulating body due to thick fatty dermis.
Select the correct pair


465) Temperature decreases progressively from the


466) A population growing in a habitat with limited resources shows four phases of growth in the following sequence


467) Photosynthetically Active Region (PAR) have the electromagnetic region of


468) Population density is the population per unit


469) Which of the following is inappropriately defined?
I. Host is an organism which provides only food, shelter to another organism
II. Amensalism is a relationship in which one species is benefitted, whereas the other is unaffected
III. Predator is an organism that catches and kills other organism for food of same species
IV. Parasite is an organism which always lives inside the body of other organism and may kill it .
Select the correct option


470) Radiation below the visible range are called


471) Competition of species leads to


472) Model is


473) Census is


474) In bacteria, fungi and lower plants, various of thick-walled …A… are formed, which help them to survive …B… conditions-these germinate on availability of suitable environment. In higher plants …C… and some other vegetative reproductive structures serve as means to tide over periods of stress besides helping in dispersal-they germinate to form new plants under favourable moisture and temperate conditions Choose the correct option for A, B and C


475) Biotic community is the assemblage of populations of


476) Ecology is the branch of biology which deals with interaction between


477) Life history traits of organisms have evolved in relation to the constraints imposed by which components of habitat


478) I. Salt concentration (parts par thousand) in sea water is …A…
II. Salt concentration (parts per thousand) in hypersaline water is …B…
Choose the correct option for A and B


479) B-horizon is also called


480) Plant grows best in the
I.acidic soil
II.basic soil
III.neutral soil
IV.slightly acidic soil
Choose the correct combination


481) Choose the incorrect statements


482) Pollination is an example of


483) Root cap is not found in


484) Which model is considered a more realistic one?


485) Salt concentration (parts par thousand) is less than 5% in


486) An interaction favourable to both population, but no obligatory to either is


487) Phenomenal and rapid increase of population in a short period is called


488) Life on earth originated in


489) The soil with poorest water holding capacity is


490) Differentiation of various tissue and organs in response to light is called


491) In a population, unrestricted reproductive capacity is called


492) Leve of competition between species depends on
I. availability of resources
II.population density
III. group interaction of organis
Choose the correct combination


493) Concept of mimicry was given by …A… Father of Indian Plant Ecology …B… Term ‘ecology’ coined by …C…
Here A, B and C refers to


494) Partial regulators are the organism which


495) A population growing in a habitat with …A… resources show initially a …B… phase, followed by phase of acceleration and deceleration and finally an asymptote, when the population density reaches the …C… .
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


496) Altitude sickness is


497) Plants grown on sandy soil, are grouped under


498) Ecology is basically concerned with how many levels?


499) An unrestricted reproductive capacity is called


500) Asymptote stage of the population is the stage of population in which the population is


501) Conformers are inactive in adverse conditions due to


502) A secondary compound are the part of the plants


503) Age structure of a population influences population growth because


504) Choose the wrong statements.
I. Two species may not live in same habitat
II. The more dissimilar the niches of two species the stronger is their competition
III. Two species can occupy the same niche in geographical area
IV. No two species may occupy the same ecosystem
The correct option is


505) For better survival of the human population, which of the following steps is most important?


506) Photosynthetic yield is maximum at the


507) No population of any species in nature has its disposal …A… resources to permit exponential growth. This leads to competition between individuals for …B… resources. Eventually, the …C… individual will survive and reproduce.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


508) Schimper’s second low related to


509) Which of the following statements regarding species interdependence are true?
I. An Association of two species where one is benefitted and other remains unaffected is called mutualism.
II. An interspecific association where both partners derive benefit from each other is called commensalism.
III. A direct food relation between two species of animals in which one animal kills and feeds on another is referred as predation.
IV. A relationship between two species of organisms where both are partners are benefitted from each other is called symbiosis.


510) In a population, the condition at which the rate of addition of new members is more than the rate of individuals lost indicates


511) In the absence of an external source of water, Kangaroo rat in North American desert is capable of meeting all its water requirements through


512) Even a plant species, which makes its own food, cannot survive alone; it needs soil microbes to breakdown the …A… matter in soil and return the …B…. nutrients for absorption. And then, how will the plant manage pollination without an animal agent? It is obvious that in nature, animals, plants and microbes cannot live in …C… but interact in various ways to form a biological community.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


513) The growth of a population without limit at its maximal rate and also that, rates of immigration and emigration are equal, then it is called


514) Which of the following characters explain the bell-shaped curve?


515) In which regions of the world are hot deserts located?


516) Population density of a population in a given habitat during a given period fluctuates due to change in


517) Statements
I. Recent studies support competition as suggested in ‘Gauses’s Competitive Exclusion Principle’
II. Gause’s hypothesis says if two species compete for same resources then one will be eliminated by another species.
III. More recent studies point out that species facing competition might evolve mechanisms that promote co-existence rather than exclusion.
IV. Gause’s competitive exclusion principle is effective when resources are in excess.
V. Unlimited resources give better opportunity for adaptation.
Choose the correct combination of statements


518) Different organism are adapted to their environment in terms of not only survival but also reproduction.
This statement belongs to


519) Which determines the flora and fauna of a place?


520) Eurythermals are the organism which


521) Plants growing on sand and gravel are called


522) In aquatic environment the types of benthic animals are determined by


523) The growth rate of a population stabilizes after


524) Why exotic species become invasive sometime and starts spreading fast because of


525) In commensalism


526) There are two optional ways of exploitation. One way is parasitism. Which is the other one?


527) Population size of Siberian cranes at Bharatpur wetlands in any year is


528) Prickly pear cactus species introduced into Australia in


529) Pattern of population results in a J-shaped curve obtained in


530) If non-limiting conditions are provided then what will happen?


531) In which one of the following habitats does the diurnal temperature of soil surface vary most?


532) Character displacement take place when there is


533) Gloger’s rule related to the


534) Positive growth or rapid increase in the population is indicated by


535) The soil which is transported by wind is known as


536) When there are large number of post-reproductive or older individuals and lesser number of pre- reproductive individuals then that population is


537) Human liverfluke (a trematode parasite) depends on which two intermediate hosts.
I. Snail
II. Fish
III. Pig
IV. Mosquito
Choose the correct combination


538) Prickly pear cactus (an exotic species) can brought under control (in Australia) by using


539) Which of the following is correct range of latitudes for temperate region?


540) Population is


541) Ecological hierarchy comprises, which of the following sequence


542) In India, human population is heavily weighed towards the younger age group as a result of


543) Aerenchyma is the characteristics feature of


544) Predator helps to create checks on


545) Animals eating plants are categorised separately as …A…, they are in a broad ecological context, not very different from …B…Choose the correct option A and B


546) The niche of a population is defined as


547) Geometric representation of age structure is characteristic of


548) When Darwin spoke of the struggle for existence and survival of the fittest in the nature, he was conveinced that


549) Genetic drift operates in


550) Which of the following is not true for a species?


551) Zero growth means


552) Ecological age groups of a population are
I. pre-reproductive
II. reproductive
III. post-reproductive
IV. old-age group
V. adolescent age group
VI. infertile age group
Choose the correct option for given statements


553) Sigmoid growth curve is represented by


554) In which one of the following pairs is the specific characteristic of soil not correctly matched?


555) All aquatic vertebrates and most molluscs and cry fishes are


556) Average temperature of thermal springs and deep sea hydrothermal vents exceeds


557) In the oceans, the environment is perpetually dark at


558) Regulators are the their animals which


559) Population A-Have the intrinsic rate of natural increase is 0.2 Population B-Have the intrinsic rate of natural increase is 0.3 Population C-Have the intrinsic rate of natural increase is 0.4 Population D-Have the intrinsic rate of natural increase is 0.5
Which population will increase fastest among all of the given population?


560) Ecosystem components includes


561) Monarch butterflies are highly distasteful to predator due to


562) Species living in a restricted geographical area is


563) Pneumatophores have lenticels for


564) Temperature gradient over earth surface is


565) Abiotic factors affects the
I. Structure of organisms
II. Physiology of organisms
III.Behaviour of organisms


566) Which one of the following is a matching pair of certain organism(s) and the kind of association?


567) Nature and properties of soil in different places vary due to


568) Zero growth of population is indicated by


569) Why mammals of the colder region generally have shorter ears and limbs?
I. To minimize their surface volume ratio
II. To minimize heat loss
III. To maximize their surface volume ratio
IV. To maximize heat loss
Choose the correct combination from the given option


570) The productivity and distribution of plants mainly depends on


571) Which one is the edaphic factor in biosphere?


572) Population density of terrestrial organisms is measured in terms of individuals per


573) Two opposite forces operate in the growth and development of every population, one of them relates to the ability to reproduce at a given rate. The force opposing is called


574) Which one is the example of sexual parasite?


575) An overwhelming majority …A… of animals and nearly all plants cannot maintain a constant internal environment. Their body temperature …B… with the ambient temperature. In aquatic animals, the osmotic concentration of the body fluids …C… with that of the ambient water osmotic concentration. These animals and plants are simply conformers.
Choose the correct option for A , B and C


576) Good soil is that which


577) Living in same habitat, organisms of same species of form


578) Which of the following factors increase, the size of a population?


579) Population size is more technically called


580) How seals can survive in polar climate where the temperature prevails below 0℃?


581) Identify the basic levels of ecology
I. Organisms
II. Populations
III. Communities
IV. Biomes
V. Human
VI. Vertebrates
Choose the correct option


582) What is true about the isolated small tribal populations?


583) Reproductive isolation between segments of a single population is termed as


584) Humus is formed by


585) An indirect competition for shared resources such as a particular nutrient is called


586) Population size more technically called …A… (designated as N) need not necessarily to be measured in …B… only
Choose the correct option for A and B


587) Certain characteristic demographic features of developing countries are


588) The permanent decrease in population number occurs due to


589) Exotic species are also called
I. introduced species
II. alien species
III. non-indigenous species
IV. non-native species
Choose the correct combination


590) Keystone species deserve protection because these


591) There is more competition for survival between


592) Find odd one out, according to parasitism.


593) They are dominant plants of the cold desert


594) Study of environmental and animal relation is


595) Sunlight is available as a source of energy. The sunlight is very much important in


596) Which of the following is correct
I. In a population, birth rate and death rate refer to per capita births and death respectively
II. In nature, we rarely find isolated single individuals of any species
III. The size of population for any species is stable phenomena
IV. Ecological effects of any factors on a population growth are generally reflected in its size/population density


597) Which one is incorrect regarding parasitism?


598) The interaction of species with the environment is called as


599) Diapause is stage of suspended development in lakes and ponds. Find out the season in which it occurs


600) Examples of chemicals produced by plants as a defense against grazers and browsers
I. Nicotine
II. Caffeine
III. Quinine
IV. Strychnine
V. Opium
Choose the correct combination


601) Maximum survival and reproductive capacity shown by a population under optimal environmental conditions is called


602) Pseudo copulation occurs in


603) The age of pyramid with broad base indicates


604) A high density of tiger population in an area can result in


605) Which horizon in soil profile is known as top soil?


606) Plants developing in dry condition are


607) Natality refers to the number of


608) I. Species level
II. Population level
III. Individual level
IV. Community level
Out of the levels given at a which level selection operates


609) Association of animals belonging to different species, where both partners are benefitted, is called


610) Why no predator become proficient in acquiring prey?


611) Hierarchy is


612) The percentage of soil volume occupied by pore space is called porosity of soil. It is minimum in


613) The inherent maximum capacity of an organism to reproduce or increase in number is called as


614) Body compensates low oxygen availability at high altitudes by
I. increasing RBC
II. decreasing binding affinity of haemoglobin
III. increasing binding affinity of haemoglobin
IV. increasing breathing rate
V. decreasing breathing rate
Choose the correct option for given statement


615) The species of plants that play a vital role in controlling the relative abundance of other species in a community are called


616) If birth rate is 100, death rate is 10 and number of individuals in population group is 1000, then what will be the percentage of natural growth rate?


617) In most animals, the metabolic reactions proceed in a …A… temperature range (in humans, it is 37℃). But there are microbes (archaebacteria) that flourish in hot springs and deep sea hydrothermal vents where temperature far exceed …B…Choose the correct option for A and B


618) How many types of age pyramid are there?


619) Competition occurs when


620) I. Some species of insects and frogs are critically coloured (camouflaged)
II. Some animals are poisonous
III. Monarch butterfly are distasteful
The above adaptations are against


621) Humus layer in soil composed of dead fresh organic matter called


622) I. Biochemical adaptation are seen in organisms living in great depth of the ocean to face crushing pressure
II. Allen’s rule is explain mammals living in colder climates
III. Altitude sickness is caused because of body not getting enough oxygen due to low atmospheric pressure at high altitude
IV. Desert lizards lack behavioural means to manage to their body temperature.
Choose the correct option for above adaptations


623) Lichens represents an intimate mutualistic relationship between


624) The science dealing with soil is


625) Biological control methods adopted in agriculture pest control are based on the


626) Viscum album grows on trees. This is an example of


627) Trichonympha campanular is the example of


628) ‘Two closely related species competing for same resources cannot co-exist indefinately’. This law is also called


629) Chi-square test is


630) Which one of the following expressions is associated with a ‘mangrove plant’?


631) Epiphyte is an example of


632) Barnacles growing on the back of whale is an example for


633) How much percentage of animals on this earth are regulators?


634) Plants of aquatic habitat is called


635) Which of the following is an example of a defence used by plants against herbivores?
I. Production of caffeine, tannin quinine
II. More production of non-woody tissues
III. Productions of hairs, thorns, spines
IV. Production of hormone-like chemicals that interfere with insect metamorphosis
Select the correct pair


636) Which type of age pyramid obtained when the population is growing?


637) The formula of growth rate for population in a given time is


638) Genetically adapted population to a particular habitat is called


639) Conformers are also called


640) Hydrophytes are characterised by


641) Interspecific interactions arise from the interaction of


642) Gause’s law is true only when


643) If natality rate is parallel to mortality rate then population


644) Sex ratio is the


645) Statements
I. Mutualistic relationship evolve when benefit of both species out weight the lost
II. Mutualism relationship evolve when benefits of both species under weight the lost
III. Human caused ecological balance by eradicating common parasite
IV. Human caused altering competition between species Select the wrong pair from statements


646) Biotic potential or potential natality means


647) Formation of wide variety of habitats takes place by


648) Population of any species is


649) Smallest unit of ecology is


650) What is a keystone species?


651) Find out the correct ones
I. Mammals of colder climate generally have shorter ears and limbs to minimize heat loss
II. All organisms have behavioural adaptations that allow them to respond quickly to a stressful situation
III. Some organisms possess behavioural adaptations which allow them migrating temporarily to a less stressful situation
IV. Invertebrates and fishes live at great depths in the ocean have biochemical adaptation to cope with high pressure


652) At high altitude we feels the sickness. The reason for sickness may be due to


653) What is probiosis?


654) A lake near a village suffered heavy mortality of fishes within a few days. Consider the following reasons for this
I. Lots of urea and phosphate fertilizers were used in the crops in the vicinity.
II. The area was sprayed with DDT by an aircraft.
III. The lake water turned green and stinky.
IV. Phytoplankton populations in the lake declined initially thereby greatly reducing photosynthesis.
Which two of the above were the main causes of fish mortality in the lake?


655) Logistic growth is represented by which equation


656) Desert lizards lack the …A… ability that mammals have to deal with the …B… temperatures of their habitat, but manage to keep their body temperature fairly constant by …C… means.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


657) Plants growing in dry and saline soil are called


658) Adaptation of parasite may be
I. loss of unnecessary organs
II. presence of adhesive organs
III. origin of suckers to cling to host
IV. loss of digestive system
V. high reproductive capacity
Choose the correct combination


659) Exponential growth in plants can be expressed as


660) Homeostasis is


661) Ecology at the organism level is also called


662) Synecology is the study of relationship between


663) Starfish pisaster is the important predator in intertidal communities of


664) Under normal condition …A… and ….B… are the most important factors influencing populations density …C… and …D… assuming importance only under special condition.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


665) If the strong partner is benefitted and the weak partner is damaged. It is known as


666) Who stated that human population grows geometrically?


667) Attribute of the organisms (morphological, physiological and behavioural) that enables organism to survive and reproduce in its habitat is called


668) Altitude sickness occurs at high Mountains. This sickness have symptoms like


669) Heat loss or heat gain is a function of surface area. Since small animals have a …A… relative to their volume, they tend to lose body heat very fast, when it is cold outside; then they have to expend …B… to generate body heat through metabolism. This is the main reason why very small animals are …C… found in polar regions.
Choose the correct options for A, B and C


670) You never see any cattle or goat browsing on Calotropis due to


671) The desert plants in order to tolerate water stress, show


672) The type of population, where pre-reproductive animals occur in large numbers, is


673) Pollinator mutualism are special interactions involving …A…, which receive food or a place to lay eggs and …B…, which receive pollen from other of their kind.
Choose of correct option for A and B


674) Which characteristics determine the percolation and water holding capacity of soils?


675) During the course of million of years of their existence most species should have evolved a relatively …A… internal environment (within the body of organisms). This internal environment would permit all biochemical reactions and physiological functions to proceed with …B… efficiency and therefore, increase the overall fitness of the species The ability of an organism to keep the internal environment constant despite drastic changes in external conditions is called …C…
Choose the correct option for A, B and C


676) To avoid the competive exclusion principle two similar species live in same area, they may evolve to become more different in order to


677) Choose the wrong statement


678) Which of the following supports a dense population of plankton and littoral vegetation?


679) Reproductive value of an individual is greatest just before


680) In an area there are 200 Parthenium and is single banyan tree. Which of the conculsion (s) is/are correct?
I. Population density of banyan is low
II. Population cover area of banyan is high
III. In above cases the percentage of cover of biomass is more meaningful than population size


681) Populations termed r-strategists


682) If the mean and the madian pertaining to a certain character of a population are of the same value, the following is most likely to occur


683) Environment factor (s) that characterize the habitat of ecosystem is/are


684) Two species occupying same or overlapping area are called as


685) UV radiation and IR radiation have the range of


686) Predation is


687) The organisms inhabiting a common environment belong to the same


688) NEERI is


689) Formation of major biomes such as desert, rainforest takes place by