Practice Test


1) Clonal cell lines can be obtained by:


2) Which is non-invasive technique of genetic counselling?


3) Who among the following discovered the enzyme restriction endonuclease?


4) The first hormone artifically produced by culturing bacteria is:


5) When the number of genes increase in response to some signal, the effect is called:


6) A number of bacteria with recombinant DNA of same type form:


7) Restriction enzyme may be used for:


8) When scientists make an animal superior by view of genotype, introducing some foreign genes in it, the phenomenon is called:


9) Many copies of a DNA molecule in a test tube are procured by:


10) Genetic diagnosis by DNA testing:


11) DNA can be introduced into any cell by:


12) Bam HI, Eco RI, Sma H are the types of:


13) The collection of bacteria with gDNA is called:


14) Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?


15) Which one of the following scientists developed the process of DNA fingerprinting?


16) DNA fingerprinting method is very useful for:


17) In DNA fingerprinting:


18) In Northern blotting RNAs are separated by gel electrophoresis and the RNA bands are transferred onto a membrane of:


19) In Southern blotting is separated by gel electrophoresis:


20) Protein engineering is used to study the proteins to compare the catalytic properties of:


21) Transgenic animals are produced by injecting foreign gene into the:


22) Western blotting technique was developed by:


23) The process used for separation of protein in polyacrylamide gel is called:


24) What is C-DNA?


25) Which of the following organelles is associated with genetic engineering?


26) The minimum length of cistron in base pairs which synthesizes a polypeptide of 50 amino acids is:


27) The recent techniques used for separating fragments of DNA is:


28) Plasmids are autonomously replicating mini chromosomes found in:


29) Genetic engineering is possible because:


30) Restriction endonucleases are:


31) In bacteria, genes for antibiotic resistance are usually located in:


32) Which one of the following is related with genetic engineering?


33) Improvement of genotype of an organism by addition of some foreign genes is:


34) Two bacteria found to be very useful in genetic engineering experiments are:


35) Term hybridoma implies:


36) Restriction enzyme are isolated chiefly from:


37) Which of the following statement is incorrect?


38) Harris and J. F. Watkins in 1965 first time reported the fusion of following cell lines to form hybrids:


39) The genetic recombinants obtained by insertion of plasmid into 1 phage genome is called:


40) Synthetic DNA or sDNA is:


41) A technique used to make numerous copies of a specific segment of DNA quickly and accurately:


42) Human genome contains about:


43) A collection of organisms, usually viruses, bacteria or yeast, which have been transformed by the addition of extra genes from another species:


44) Colony hybridization procedure for identification of plasmid clones is called:


45) TATAATG sequence near the RNA start point of prokaryotic promoter is:


46) Which one of the following scientists got the Nobel Prize for his invention polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?


47) An artificial process of infecting cells with naked viral DNA is:


48) Producing a 'giant mouse' in the laboratory was possible through:


49) One of the following is transgenic of organisms:


50) An environmental agent that triggers transcription from an operon is a:


51) Which of the following would not be used in preparing recombinant DNA?


52) Ability to absorb foreign DNA is:


53) RNA processing is:


54) There are special proteins that help to open up DNA double helix infront of the replication fork. These proteins are:


55) Who got the Noble prize in medicine for their discovery of 'G-proteins' and the role of these proteins in the cells:


56) A gene is made up of:


57) The message from nuclear DNA for the synthesis of specific cytoplasmic protein is carried by:


58) Exonucleases cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end of the polynucleotide chain are:


59) Complete tranduction is:


60) Inducible/lac operon system operates in:


61) Nif genes is a group of proteins:


62) Nitrogen fixing genes are called:


63) Humulin is a:


64) Mishandling of genetic engineering may cause:


65) Genetic engineering is helpful in:


66) Human Genome project was the thought of:


67) The genome map was produced under human genome project in:


68) Total genes in the human genome is approximately:


69) Genes that are involved in turning on or off the transcription of a set of structural genes are called:


70) Transgenic organisms are produced by:


71) The basis for DNA fingerprinting is:


72) Genetically bacteria have been successfully used in the commercial production of:


73) Which of the following is associated with genetic engineering?


74) PCR stands for:


75) Enzyme used in PCR is:


76) Yeast has become important in genetic engineering because it:


77) Gene for cloning may be chemically synthesized:


78) You are attempting to introduce a gene that imparts larval moth resistance to bean plants. Which of the following vectors are you most likely to use?


79) The genome of Caenorhabditis elegans consists of:


80) Taq polymerase enzyme is found in:


81) Petroleum-lysing bacteria are being engineered for the removal of oil spills. What is the most realistic danger of these bacteria to the environment?


82) An attenuated virus:


83) Which of the following is a difficulty in getting prokaryotic cells to express eukaryotic genes?


84) Restriction endonucleases are used as:


85) A somatic plant cell has potential to develop into a full plant. This is called:


86) Enzymes breaking nucleic acids into nuleotides are called:


87) Recombinant DNA technology is related with:


88) Cosmid is:


89) Match the correct one:


90) Plasmids is used as carrier because:


91) The Ti plasmid used in genetic engineering is obtained from:


92) The function of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is:


93) Genetically engineered bacterium used in production of:


94) Abnormal gene is replaced by normal gene through:


95) In genetic engineering, the terms vector is applied for:


96) Gene therapy involves:


97) Which of the following enzyme is used in genetic engineering?


98) The transgenic animals are those which have:


99) Known sequence of DNA that is used to find complementary DNA strand is:


100) Totipotency in cell is:


101) The nuclease enzyme, which begins its attack from free end of a polynucleotide, is?


102) Reverse transcriptase:


103) Bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease is equal to:


104) A clone of sheep Dolly has been made by:


105) Which one of the following bacteria has found extensive use in genetic engineering work in plants?


106) Variable number of tandem repeats (VTNRs) in the DNA molecule are highly useful in:


107) The first cloned animal of the world is:


108) In transgenics, the expression of transgene in the target tissue is known by:


109) DNA fingerprinting is related to:


110) Which of the following is specifically used in genetic engineering?


111) Molecular scissors, which cut DNA at specific site:


112) Plasmids are extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules:


113) Identify the plasmid:


114) Natural genetic engineer is:


115) The most thoroughly studied of the known bacteria-plant interaction is the:


116) What does Bt stand for the popular crop Bt cotton?


117) DNA fingerprinting techniques was first developed by:


118) What is the first step in Southern Blot technique?


119) An example of gene therapy is:


120) The total number of nitrogenous bases in human genome is estimated to be about:


121) Name of the drug used in cancer treatment produced by using biotechnology is:


122) Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?


123) Somaclonal variation can be obtained by:


124) The enzyme used for cutting DNA segment in genetic engineering is:


125) Widely used tool in genetic engineering of crop plants is:


126) Which one of the following hydrolyses internal phosphodiester bonds in a polynucleotide chain?


127) There is a restriction endonuclease called EcoRI. What does "co" part in it stand for?


128) Agarose extracted from sea weeds finds use in:


129) In DNA fingerprinting which of the following is true?


130) Matching sequence of DNA between two evidences, one of the criminal with the suspect is known as:


131) A technology which has found immense use in solving cases of disputed parentage is:


132) First hormone prepared by genetic engineering is:


133) First biochemical to be produced commercially by microbial cloning and genetic engineering is:


134) Which of the following statement is true?


135) Protoplasts of two different species are fused in:


136) c-DNA probes are copied from the messenger RNA molecules with the help of:


137) Electroporation procedure involves:


138) Which one of the following is a correct statement


139) A tumour inducing plasmid widely used in the production of transgenic plants in that of:


140) Common bacterium used in genetic engineering is:


141) Choose the correct statement with reference to 'Dolly':


142) Find the incorrect statement:


143) Production of human protein in bacteria by genetic engineering is possible because:


144) Two microbes found to be very useful in genetic engineering are:


145) What is the function of Restriction endonuclease?


146) A genetically engineered micro-organism used successfully bioremediation of oil spills is a species of:


147) The construction of the first recombinant DNA was done by using the native plasmid of:


148) The basis of DNA fingerprinting is:


149) The linking of antibiotic resistance gene with the plasmid vector became possible with:


150) Gel electrophoresis is used for:


151) Which one of the following palindromic base sequences in DNA can be easily cut at about the middle by some particular restriction enzyme?


152) An improved variety of transgenic basmati rice:


153) Genetic engineering has been successfully used for producing:


154) The genetically-modified (GM) brinjal in India has been developed for:


155) Genetic engineering considered to be a branch of biotechnology is concerned with:


156) Which of the following is used as carrier of transferring of selected DNA into cells?


157) Which of the following restriction endonuclease enzymes produce blunt end?


158) Which of the following is correct with regard to recombinant of DNA technology?


159) Restriction endonucleases:


160) Plasmids:


161) Which of the following properties makes plasmids suitable vectors for gene cloning?


162) Plasmids present in the bacterial cells are:


163) The first step in genetic engineering is:


164) Hybridisation through protoplast fusion is known as:


165) The term humulin is used for:


166) The technique by which 'Dolly' the sheep was obtained is termed as:


167) The first successfully cloned mammal that gained world-wide publicity was:


168) Synthesis of DNA can be stopped by incorporating artificial:


169) The technique to detect specific genes is called:


170) Which of the following statement is incorrect?


171) Restriction enzymes are used in genetic engineering because


172) Process by which we can add or delete certain gene is


173) Which type of bond is formed by the sticky ends with their complementary counterparts?


174) Since DNA has a ______ charge, it moves towards the _____ electrode of the electrophoretic chamber


175) What must be done before placing DNA into the electrophoretic chamber?


176) How many major types of restriction endonucleases have been recongnised?


177) X technique is now routinely used to detect HIV in suspected AIDS patients. It is being used to detect mutations in genes in suspected cancer patients too. It is a powerful technique to identify many other genetic disorders. Identify X


178) Which of the following is known as chemical knife of DNA?


179) The type of bond formed by DNA ligase between adjacent nucleotides is


180) Which statement is wrong?


181) The procedure through which a piece of DNA is introduced in a host bacterium is called


182) Which of the following has the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous cells in animals?


183) Which of the following is not applicable to Agrobacterium tumifaciens?


184) Insertional inactivation is related to


185) For transformation with recombinant DNA, the bacterial cells must first be made 'competent' which means


186) Which of the following method can be used for making the bacterial cell 'competent'?


187) Which of the following techniques can be used to introduce foreign DNA into cell?


188) During heat shock to the bacterium, the temperature used for giving thermal shock is


189) Which of the following enzyme is used in case of fungus to cause release of DNA along with other macromolecules?


190) During isolation of DNA, addition of which of the following causes precipitation of purified DNA?


191) Which of the following is the correct sequence of PCR or polymerase chain reaction?


192) The most commonly used bioreactor is of stirring type. The stirrer facilitates


193) Which of the following palindromic sequence is recognize by EcoRI?


194) During gel electrophoresis for separation of DNA fragment


195) Fill up the blanks -
A. When cut by the same restriction enzyme, the resultant DNA fragments have the same kind of _____ and these can be joined together end-to-end using ______.
B. Disruption of the cell membranes can be achieved by treating the bacterial cells plant or animal tissue with enzymes such as ______ (bacteria), _____ (plant cells) and ______ (fungus).
C. If any protein encoding gene is expressed in a heterologous host, it is called a _____.
D. In gel electrophoresis, the separated DNA fragments can be seen only after staining the DNA with a compound known as ________ followed by exposure to UV radiation.


196) Fill up the blanks -
A. The construction of the first recombinant DNA emerged from the possibility of linking a gene encoding antibiotic resistance with a native _____ of _____.
B. Hind II always cut DNA molecules at a particular point by recognizing a specific sequence of ______ base pairs. This specific sequence is known as _____ for Hind II.
C. The ______ in DNA is a sequence of base that reads same on the two strands when orientation of reading is kept the same.
D. ______, a pathogen of several dicot plants is able to deliver a piece of DNA known as ______ to transform normal plant cells into tumor cells.


197) Identify the true statements -
A. The first recombinant DNA was constructed by using a piece of DNA from a plasmid carrying antibiotic resistance gene in the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and linked it to the plasmid of E. coli.
B. Cohen and Boyer are known as father of genetic engineering.
C. When cut by the same restriction enzyme, the resultant DNA fragments have the same kind of sticky ends and these can be joined together using DNA ligases.
D. Endonucleases remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA whereas exonucleases make cuts at specific positions within the DNA.
E. Presence of more than one recognition sites within the vector will generate several fragments, which will complicate the gene cloning.
F. Humulin was the first recombinant DNA, based product, produced and marketed in India.
G. YAC vectors contain the telomeric sequence the centromere and autonomously replicating sequence from yeast chromosomes.
H. Alkaline phosphatase, is used to prevent unwanted self ligation of the vector DNA molecules in procedures of DNA technology.
I. pBR322 vector was the first artificial ideal vector constructed by Boliver and Rodriguer.
J. Plasmid DNA is coated with histone proteins and can act as genetic factor.


198) Pairing of fragments derived from DNA is a process called


199) The controlled use of biological agents, such as micro-organisms or cellular components, for beneficial use is called


200) The experimental manipulation of DNA of different species, producing recombinant DNA is known as


201) Which of the following is used as cloning vehicle?


202) The tumour-inducing capacity of Agrobacterium tumifacines is located in large extrachromosomal plasmids called


203) Which enzyme is used as gum to join ends of DNA?


204) Which one of the following restriction endonuclease is obtained from Escherichia coli?


205) A bioreactor (fermenter) refers to


206) Autonomously replicating circular extrachromosomal DNA is called


207) The first restriction endonuclease reported was


208) Which one is incorrect?


209) DNA fragments can be separated by a technique known as


210) T-DNA is found in


211) Which of the following methods are used to introduce alien DNA


212) Which enzymes are used to break the cell to release DNA?


213) Which enzyme is used to join cut DNA?


214) Taq DNA polymerase enzyme is obtained from


215) Which is incorrect?


216) If a protein encoding gene is expressed in a heteroolgous host it is called


217) Which of the following are required to facilitate cloning into a vector?


218) Which is incorrect?


219) Which of the following has been used as cloning vector?


220) A device in which substances are treated to stimulate transformation by living cells is called


221) Which of the following has helped in development of biotechnology?


222) In which country first artificial cultivation of mushroom started?


223) Which is not true for stirred tank fermentation?


224) Which statement is incorrect?


225) During DNA purification, which enzyme is used to treat plant cells?


226) Restriction endonucleases enzymes are used in genetic engineering because they


227) Which of the following is/are part(s) of biotechnology?
A. in vitro fertilization
B. synthesis of a gene
C. correcting a defective gene
D. developing a DNA vaccine


228) The first recombinant DNA was constructed by


229) Which of the following is/are used in recombinant DNA technology?
A. agarose gel
B. ethidium bromide
C. plasmid vector
D. restriction endonuclease


230) Which of the following vectors are used to deliver a desirable gene into animal and plant cells, respectively?


231) Which of the method(s) is/are used to introduce foreign DNA into host cells?


232) Due to ampicillin resistance gene, one is able to select a transformed cell in the presence of ampicillin. The ampicillin resistance gene in this case is called


233) Which of the following statements are true about scientist Paul Berg?
A. he is the Father of genetic engineering
B. he transferred gene of SV 40 virus into E. Coli
C. he got the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1980
D. he developed hybridoma technology for the production of monoclonal antibiotics


234) Who has got the Nobel Prize for the discovery of type II restriction enzymes?
A. W. Arber
B. H. Smith
C. A. Tiselius
D. D. Nathans


235) What are the properties of a good vector?
A. it should be ideally more than 10 kb in size
B. it should be able to replicate autonomously
C. it should have suitable marker genes
D. it should not be easy to isolate and purify


236) Gene gun or particle bombardment gun method of gene transfer utilizes


237) The areas of application of PCR include
A. production of monoclonal antibodies
B. insertion of recombinant DNA into organism
C. diagnosis of specific mutation
D. detection of plant pathogens


238) After the formation of the product in the bioreactors, it undergoes through separation and purification processes before a finished product is ready for marketing. These processes are collectively referred to as


239) Which one is associated with downstream processing?
A. Separation
B. Purification
C. DNA isolation
D. Gene expression


240) Which of the following restriction enzymes produces blunt ends?


241) Which of the following is/are concerned with biotechnology?


242) Restriction endonucleases -
A. are found in bacteria
B. are very useful in genetic engineering
C. cut the DNA at particular sites
D. are used naturally in a bacterial cell to defend against foreign DNA


243) DNA recombinant technology uses -
A. Restriction endonucleases
B. DNA ligase
C. Cloning vector
D. Electrophoresis


244) Genetic engineering is


245) Which of the following is not a tool used to perform genetic engineering


246) PCR needs


247) A. Large scale production involves use of bioreactors.
B. Genetic engineering involves the use of restriction endonuclease, DNA ligase appropriate plasmid or viral vectors.
C. Modern biotechnology uses genetically modified organisms.
D. Bacterial cell wall is digested by lysozyme.


248) A. In elution the separated bands of DNA are cut from agarose gel and extracted from the gel piece.
B. E. coli cloning vector pBR322 shows several restriction, Ori, antibiotic resistance genes and Rop.
C. The down stream processing and quality control testing vary from produced to product.
D. Competent bacterial cell cannot take up the plasmid.


249) Which statement is incorrect?
A. Genetic engineering is also called recombinant DNA technology.
B. Bacteriophage is not used as vector.
C. MALAYALAM is a palindrome.
D. Ethidium bromide can not be used for staining DNA.


250) Which one is associated with Agrobacterium tumifaciens?
A. Tumor
B. Ti plasmid
C. T-DNA
D. Cancerous cells


251) Which steps are involved in genetically modifying an organism?
A. Identification of desirable DNA
B. Insertion of DNA into the host
C. Maintenance of introduced DNA in the host
D. Isolation of recombinant protein


252) Which statement is true about bioreactor?
A. Bioreactor provides the optimal conditions for obtaining the desired product
B. Raw materials are biologically converted into specific products
C. A stirred-tank reactor is horizontal in shape
D. Large volume of cultures cannot be processed


253) Restriction endonucleases hydrolyzes polynucleotide from


254) Most common reporter gene whose product can be directly visualized in transformed cells is


255) For a plasmid to be a cloning vector, the minimum numbers of elements required are


256) Which of the following is incorrect about reporter gene


257) DNA of a bacterium is not cleaved by its own restriction enzymes because the recognition DNA sequences are


258) Agrobacterium tumefaciens is an effective vector for use with


259) The first nuclear transplant from an animal cell into an enucleated egg that produced a normal offspring was performed in


260) Recombinant DNA bearing ampicillin resistance gene is passed in E. coli. The latter are spread on agar plates containing ampicillin. Then


261) A mouse in which one particular gene has been replaced by its inactivated form generated in vitro is called


262) Which of the following tools of recombinant DNA technology is incorrectly paired with its use?


263) In recombinant DNA methods, the term vector refers to


264) Which of the following is not component of yeast artificial chromosome


265) Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that -
P. cleave the 5' terminal nucleotides from duplex DNA molecules
Q. make sequence specific cuts in both strands of duplex DNA molecules
R. promote circularization of the duplex DNA molecule by removal of the 5' terminal nucleotides
S. generate 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphate ends in the cut DNA strands


266) Elution is a method applied for


267) A plant genetic engineer wishes to transfer and express a gene from sunflower into beans. Which of the following would be the vector of choice?


268) Terminal transferase is used


269) Which statement about restriction enzymes are false?


270) Restriction-modification systems of bacteria exists to


271) Which of the following is a desirable characteristic for a cloning plasmid?


272) Eukaryotic genes may not function properly when cloned into bacteria because of


273) Restriction endonucleases are


274) Which statement correctly describes sequential steps in cDNA cloning?


275) The following are useful to introduce genes into crop plants except


276) Which one of these statements about the applications of gene cloning is false?


277) Cosmid vectors are used for constructing libraries of DNA fragments of eukaryotes because they


278) Which of the following is not true about pBR322 vector?


279) The presence of a plasmid in a bacterial culture is usually determined by


280) Which of the following processes require energy?


281) To be a cloning vector, a plasmid does not require


282) In agarose gel electrophoresis


283) Shotgun approach is used for the construction of


284) pBR322 which is frequently used as a vector for cloning gene in E. coli is


285) Select the correct option which shows the most appropriate temperatures of these different steps of PCR mechanism


286) Which of the following statement is not correct?


287) Which of the following statement is not correct about cloning vector


288) Which of the following statement is not correct


289) Which of the following is the part of biotechnology


290) European Federation of Biotechnology (FEB) has given a definition of biotechnology that


291) The enzymes responsible for restricting the growth of bacteriohage in 'Escherichia coli' is


292) Which of the following statement is not true


293) The most common tool of genetic engineering


294) Antibiotic resistance gene present on BamHI site of a E. coli cloning vector is


295) Selection of recombinants due to inactivation of antibiotics is a cumbersome procedure because


296) In E. coli cloning vector PBR322. ROP codes for


297) The bacteria associated with plant genetic engineering are


298) Direct visual selection method for the selection of recombinant host cells on the basis of their inability to produce colour in the presence of chromogenic substrate can be applied if the vector used is a


299) Which of the following vectors is/are used for cloning in eukaryotic organisms?
A. Plasmids
B. Bacteriophages
C. Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumifaciens
D. Disarmed retroviruses


300) Which of the following features cannot be associates with Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumifaciens which is modified into a cloning vector?


301) If recombinant DNA is inserted within the coding sequence of enzyme galactosidase, which of the following will occur in case of non-recombinants?


302) Following enzymes/techniques are used in the process of recombinant DNA technology -
A. EcoRI to cut the isolated genome
B. DNA ligase
C. Protease and ribonuclease for removal of proteins and RNA from DNA
D. Production of reombinant hosts
E. Lysozyme for isolation of the genetic material (DNA)
F. Gel electrophoresis for separation and isolation of DNA fragments
Mark the correct sequence of their use


303) In case of pBR322, which of the following act as selectable markers?


304) After completion of biosynthetic stage, the product has to be subjected through a series of processes before it is ready for marketing as finished product. This series of processes is called


305) Two enzymes responsible for restricting the growth of bacteriophage in Escherichia coli were isolated. One was methylase and other was restriction endonuclease. What was the significance of methylase?


306) Agrobacterium tumefaciens -
A. Acts as natural genetic engineer
B. Carries vie region which is essential for insertion of T-DNA into host cells
C. Has been used to transfer genes for 'RNA interference' in plants
Mark the correct statements


307) Continuous addition of sugars in 'fed batch' fermentation is done to


308) Read the following four statements (A-D) about certain mistakes in two of them -
A. The first transgenic buffalo Rosie produced milk which was human alpha-lactalbumin enriched
B. Restriction enzymes are used in isolation of DNA from other macro-molecules
C. Downstream processing is one of the steps of R-DNA technology
D. Disarmed pathogen vectors are also used in transfer of R-DNA into the host
Which are the two statements having mistakes?


309) Biolistics (gene-gun) is suitable for


310) In genetic engineering, the antibiotics are used


311) If haemoglobin (Hb) of a normal individual and a sickle-cell patient are run in electrophoretic field lie and show


312) Cohen and Boyer isolated an antibiotic resistance gene, by cutting out a piece of DNA from a plasmid which was responsible for conferring antibiotic resistance, in the year


313) Restriction enzyme EcoRI cuts the DNA between bases G and A only when the sequence in DNA is


314) Amplification of gene of interest by using DNA polymerase may to upto


315) Which of the statement is incorrect?


316) A single strand of nucleic acid tagged with a radioactive molecule is called


317) Which one of the following is a case of wrong matching


318) Which one is a true statement regarding DNA polymerase used in PCR


319) For transformation, micro-particles coated with DNA to be bombarded with gene gun are made up of


320) DNA fragments generated by the restriction endonucleases in a chemical reaction can be separated by


321) Which of the following is not correctly matched for the organism and its cell wall degrading enzyme?


322) Blue-white selection is used


323) An analysis of chromosomal DNA using the Southern hybridization technique does not use


324) Which vector can clone only a small fragment of DNA?


325) Identify the desirable characteristics for a plasmid used in rDNA technology from the following -
A. Ability to multiply and express outside the host in a bioreactor
B. A highly active promoter
C. A site at which replication can be initiated
D. One or more identifiable marker genes
E. One or more unique restriction sites


326) In order induce the bacterial uptake of plasmids, the bacteria are made competent by first treating with


327) The sticky ends on each of the two strands of a DNA generated by treatment with restriction enzyme facilitate the action of enzyme


328) In pBR322, the gene sequence that codes for the proteins involved in the replication of the plasmid is


329) Selective markers in plasmids are used to


330) If the transformed bacterial cells are selected by blue/white screening, it means that the reporter enzyme/protein in this case is


331) The best cloning vector to transfer large fragment of passenger DNA into host cell is


332) In the year ___X____, the two enzymes responsible for restricting the growth of bacteriohphage in ___Y____ were isolated. One of these added methyl groups to DNA, while the other cut DNA.
Choose the option which correctly fills up the blanks X and Y is


333) Consider the given statements w.r.t. gel electrophoresis -
I. DNA can be separated by forcing them to move towards cathode under an electric field
II. DNA fragments separate according to their size through sieving effect provided by agarose gel
III. The used matrix in this technique is agarose which is an artificial polymer
Which of the following statements is/are correct?


334) Select the wrong statement


335) The cloning vector M13 has genetic material


336) In the nomenclature of enzyme restriction endonuclease the Roman numerical indicates


337) One of the methods by which DNA cannot be transferred to the host cell is by


338) The DNA molecule to which the gene of interest is integrated for cloning is called


339) The introduction of T-DNA into plants involves


340) The cutting of DNA at specific locations became possible with the discovery of


341) Which of the following is not a feature of the plasmids?


342) The taq polymerase enzyme is obtained from


343) Stirred-tank bioreactors have been designed for


344) A foreign DNA and plasmid cut by the same restriction endonuclease can be joined to form a recombinant plasmid using


345) Which of the following is not a component of downstream processing?


346) The uptake of naked DNA by bacteria is called


347) The DNA-joining enzyme, required in recombinant DNA technology is


348) Isolation of DNA from a fungal cell involves the use of enzyme


349) Statement 1: All endonuclease cut DNA at specific sites
Statement 2: Endonucleases are found in viruses


350) Statement 1: Restriction endonucleases are also called ‘molecular scissors’
Statement 2: When fragments generated by restriction endonucleases are mixed, they join together
due to their sticky ends


351) Statement 1: Agrobacterium tumfaciens is popular in genetic engineering because this bacterium is
associated with roots of all cereals and pulse crops
Statement 2: A gene incorporated in the bacterial chromosomal genome gets automatically transferred
to the crop with which the bacterium is associated


352) Statement 1: In recombinant DNA technology, human genes are often transferred into bacteria or yeast
Statement 2: Both bacteria and yeast multiply very fast to form huge population which expresses the
desired gene


353) Retroviruses in animals including humans are able to change normal cells into


354) pBR322 was the first artificial cloning vector developed in …A… by …B… and …C… from E. coli plasmid.
Here A, B and C can be


355) Transfer of any gene into a completely different organism can be done through


356) Recombinant DNA have integrated fragment of


357) In plants, the tumour inducing plasmid (Ti) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used as a cloning vector.
This statement is


358) If recombinant DNA carrying antibiotic resistance (e.g., ampicillin) is transferred into E. coli cell, the host
cell is transformed into ampicillin-resistant cells. The ampicillin resistant gene in this case is called a


359) Proteins are removed by treatment with


360) Which of the following key factors, makes plasmid, the vector in genetic engineering?


361) I.Ori also controls the copy numbers of the linked DNA
II. If a foreign DNA ligates at the Bam HI site of tetracycline resistance gene in the vector pBR322, the
recombinant plasmid loses the tetracycline resistance due to insertion of foreign DNA
Choose regarding the above statements


362) Downstream process includes
I. Separation of the product from the reactor
II. Purification of the product
III. Formation of the product with suitable preservatives
IV. Quality control testing and clinical trials in case of drugs
Which of the statements given above are correct?


363) More advancement in genetic engineering is due to


364) Plasmid are suitable vectors for gene cloning because


365) Polymerase chain reaction is useful in


366) A bioreactor is


367) Which of the following techniques can be used to detect genetic disorders in human?


368) Primers are


369) This method of finding a gene is used when researchers very little about the gene they are trying to find.
This process results in a complete gene library : a collection of copies of DNA fragments that represent the entire genome of an organism. Identify the method


370) Consider the following statement about PCR
I. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a technique of synthesizing multiple copies of the desired gene in
vitro
II. This technique was developed by Kary Mullis in 1985
III. A single PCR amplification cycle involves three basic steps; denaturation, annealing and extension
Which of the statement given above are correct?


371) Ori is a DNA sequence that is responsible for initiating replication. This statement is


372) Plasmids are autonomously replicating circular extrachromosomal DNA. This statement is


373) A single PCR amplification cycle involves


374) Which of the following are used to gene cloning?


375) The process that preserves the distribution of DNA fragments in the gel while creating replica on the filter
is one of the following


376) Two enzymes responsible for restricting the growth of bacteriophages in E. coli were isolated. One was
methylase and other was restriction endonuclease. What is the significance of methylase?


377) Single-stranded DNA molecules that can bind to and be used to detect other DNA molecules are called


378) The controlled use of biological agents, such as microorganism, plants or animal cell, for beneficial use is
called


379) Consider the following statements
I. In microinjection method foreign DNA is directly injected into the nucleus of animal cell or plant cell by
using micro needles or micro pipettes
II. Microinjection method is used in oocytes, eggs and embryo
III. Electroporation is the formation of temporary pores in the plasma membrane of host cell by using
lysozyme or calcium chloride
IV. In chemical mediated gene transfer method certain chemicals such as CO2 help foreign DNA to enter
the host cell
Which of the statements given above are correct?


380) Polyethylene glycol method is used for


381) The enzymes, commonly used in genetic engineering are


382) Which one of the following techniques had helped to solve many mysteries involving murders, robberies
and rapes?


383) Consider the following statements
I. Recombinant DNA technology popularly known as genetic engineering is a stream of biotechnology
which deals with the manipulation of genetic material by man in vitro
II. pBR322 is the first artificial cloning vector developed in 1977 by Boliver and Rodriquez from E.coli
plasmid
III. Restriction enzymes belongs to a class of enzymes called nucleases
Which of the statements given above are correct?


384) PCR was developed by …A… in …B… and for this he received Nobel Prize for chemistry in …C… . Here A, B
and C can be recognized as


385) Cutting of a piece of DNA from a plasmid was done with the help of …A… enzymes, popularly known as
…B… . Here A and B can be


386) In a genetic engineering experiment, restriction enzymes can be used for


387) The components of a bioreactor are
I. an agitator system
II. an oxygen delivery system
III. foam control system
IV. temperature control system
V. pH control system
VI. sampling ports to with draw cultures periodically
Choose the correct option


388) I. DNA being a hydrophilic molecule cannot pass through cell membranes
II. The bacteria should be made competent to accept the DNA molecule
The correct option regarding the above statements is


389) In cloning plasmid pBR322
p stands for …A…
B stands for …B…
R stands for …C…
Choose the correct option


390) Blood stains are found at the site of murder. If DNA profiling technique is to be used for identifying the
criminal, which of the following is ideal for use?


391) Which of the following is required to perform polymerase chain reaction?
I. DNA template
II. Primer
III. Taq polymerase and vent polymerase
Choose the correct option


392) In genetic engineering, a DNA segment (gene) of interest, is transferred to the host cell through a vector.
Consider the following four agents (I-IV) in this regard and select the correct option about which one or
more of these can be used as a vector/vectors
I. Bacterium
II. Plasmid
III. Plasmodium
IV. Bacteriophage


393) Thermostable enzymes ′taq′ and ′ventDNA polymerase′ isolated from thermophilic bacteria are


394) Due to chloramphenicol resistance gene, one is able to select a transformed cell in the presence of
chloramphenicol. The chloramphenicol resistance gene in this case is called


395) GAATTC is the recognition site for the restriction endonuclease


396) Plasmid is


397) The polymerase chain reaction is a technique that is used for


398) Enzyme that is used in PCR technology is


399) An enzyme catalyzing the removal of nucleotides from the ends of DNA is


400) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) needs


401) Consider the following statements
I. A soil inhabiting plant bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens , a pathogen of several dicot plants is
able to transfer a piece of DNA known as T-DNA
II. The T-DNA causes tumours
III. Tumour formation induced by Ti-plasmid
Which of the statements given above are correct?


402) Restriction endonucleases are enzymes which


403) Which of the following is correctly matched?


404) The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a reaction in which amplification of specific DNA sequences is
carried out in vitro. This statement is


405) Restriction enzymes was discovered by


406) Consider the following statements
I. Bioreactors are vessels of large volumes in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific
products
II. One of the most commonly used bioreactors is of stirring type
III. Shake flasks are used for growing and mixing the desired materials on a small scale in the laboratory
IV. A large scale production of desired biotechnological product is done by using ‘bioreactors’


407) The term ‘Biotechnology’ was given by


408) Which of the following statement is not true?
I. DNA being a hydrophilic molecule cannot pass through cell membranes
II. Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivers a piece of DNA known as ‘Z-DNA’ in the Ti-plasmid which
transforms normal plant cells into tumour cells to produce chemical against pathogens
III. Retrovirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus are also now used as cloning vectors in animal because of their
ability to transform normal cells into cancerous cell.
IV. In genetic engineering, DNA from different sources are cut with the same restriction enzymes so that
both DNA fragments have same kind of sticky ends
Choose the correct option


409) PCR technique was invented by


410) The tumour inducing capacity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is located in large extrachromosomal
plasmids called


411) Who discovered recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology?


412) Which of the following is used in recombinant DNA technique?


413) For selectable marker.
I. It helps to select the host cells which contain the vector and eliminate the non transformants
II. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotics like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline or kanamycin, are
useful selectable markers for E. coli
Which of the statements given above are correct?


414) Who discovered that restriction enzymes have the capability of cutting DNA strands in a particular
fashion, which left what has became known as ‘sticky ends’ on the strands?


415) A restriction fragment containing a specific gene of interest can be identified by gel electrophoresis
followed by transferring the DNA to a membrane as a solid support matrix using a procedure called


416) About gene gun method
I. This method is also known as biolistic technique
II. In this method cells are bombarded with high velocity micro-particles of gold or tungsten coated with
DNA in plants
III. Important crop plants like maize, rice and wheat have now been transformed by this method
Which of the statements given above are correct?


417) RNA is removed by the treatment with


418) Process of formation of RNA from DNA is called


419) Which of the following components are used in gel electrophoresis?
I. Ethidium bromide
II. Restriction endonuclease
III. Agarose
IV. UV radiation
Choose the correct option


420) Microorganisms can be grown in the bioreactor by


421) Which one of the following is commonly used in transfer of foreign DNA into crop plants?


422) Which one among the following is just a cloning plasmid not an expression plasmid?


423) There …A… are the DNA molecules that can carry a foreign …B… segment into the host cell.
Here A and B refers to


424) Probes, used in DNA fingerprinting are initially


425) Application of PCR are
I. detection of pathogens
II. diagnosis of specific mutation
III. DNA fingerprinting
Choose the correct option


426) The role of DNA ligase in the construction of a recombinant DNA molecule is


427) Biolistics (gene gun) is suitable for


428) Which of the following statements are correct for the enzyme taq polymerases?
I. Taq polymerase is thermally unstable
II. It requires primers for carrying out the process of polymerization
III. Taq polymerase is isolated from thermophilic bacterium, Thermus aquaticus
Choose the correct option


429) EFB stands for


430) The commonly used DNA fingerprinting technique in forensic studies is simply a method involving


431) Cry I endotoxins obtained from Bacillus thruigiensis are effective against


432) In the naming of restriction enzymes the first letter is derived from …A… name and next two letters from
the …B… and fourth letter from …C… of …D… where the enzymes are extracted
A to D in the statement can be


433) Which of the following techniques is most commonly used to separate DNA molecules by size?


434) Which of the following steps are catalyzed by taq polymerase in a PCR reaction?


435) I. In the process of recombinant DNA technology after several treatment the purified DNA is precipitated
by adding chilled ethanol
II. The bacterial/plant, animal cell is broken down by enzymes to release DNA, along with RNA, proteins,
polysaccharides and lipids
Choose the correct option for above statements


436) Which of the statements are correct about bioreactors?
I. It provides all the optimal conditions for achieving the desired product by providing optimal growth
conditions like temperature, pH, substrate, salt, vitamin and oxygen
II. It is suited for large-scale production of microorganisms under aseptic conditions for a number of days
Correct option is


437) Taq polymerase enzyme used in PCR is isolated from


438) The first restriction endonuclease type II …A…, was isolated by Smith, Wilcox and Kelley from …B…
bacterium. It was formed to cut DNA molecules at a particular point by recognizing a specific sequence of
six base pairs, known as the …C… . Here A, B and C can be


439) In gel electrophoresis, the separated DNA fragments are visualized after staining the DNA with …A…
followed by exposure to …B…
Here A and B refers to
A B


440) Following enzymes/chemical/technique are used in the process of gel electrophoresis
I. sample DNA is cut into fragments
II. restriction endonucleases
III. agarose gel
IV. ethidium bromide
V. UV-radiation
VI. elution
Mark the correct sequence of their use


441) Which one is a true statement regarding DNA polymerase used in polymerase chain reaction?


442) Most sensitive technique to detect malignant cell in non-hodgkin’s lymphoma is


443) Which conserved motifs are found in E. coli genes?


444) Which of the following methods(s) is used to introduce foreign DNA into host cells?


445) After completion of the biosynthetic stage in the bioreactors, the product undergoes. Separation and
purification processes, collectively termed as


446) Which of the following should be choosen for best yield if one has to produce a recombinant protein or
enzyme on a large scale, using microbial plants/anima/human cell?


447) Which of the following is known as molecular scissors of DNA?


448) A kind of biotechnology involving manipulation of DNA is


449) Polymerase chain reaction employs


450) An antibiotic resistance gene in a vector usually helps in the selection of


451) Which of the following statements are correct with respect to a bioreactor?
I. It can process small volume of culture
II. It provides optimum temperature, pH, salt, vitamins and oxygen
III. Sparged stirred-tank bioreactor is a stirred type reactor in which air is bubbled
Choose the correct option


452) Vent polymerase enzyme used in PCR is isolated from


453) Stirred-tank bioreactors have advantages over shake flasks because they


454) During ‘gene cloning’ which is called a gene taxi?


455) I. Copy number is defined as the number of copies of plasmid present in a cell
II. It varies from 15-100 copies per cell
Choose regarding the above statements


456) Which of the following has popularized the PCR (polymerase chain reaction)?


457) The first recombinant DNA was constructed by


458) Source of taq polymerase used in PCR is a


459) Which of the following is used as a best genetic vector in plants?


460) Plants in comparison to animals are more rapidly manipulated by genetic engineering. Select out the most
probable reason for this


461) In recombinant DNA technique, the term vector refers to a


462) The steps involved in the Southern blot test are as follows
I. X-ray film
II. Electrophoresis
III. Digestion with restriction enzyme
IV. Ethidium bromide
V. Radioactive probe
Choose the option having correct sequential order of these events


463) Find out the wrong statements


464) The mobile genetic element is


465) Identify the palindromic sequence in the following


466) The different basic steps of genetic engineering are given below randomly
I. Identification of DNA with desirable genes
II. Gene transfer
III. Maintenance of DNA in host and gene cloning
IV. Introduction of DNA into host to from recombinant DNA
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of steps?


467) Which of the following steps are involved in the process of recombinant biotechnology? Arrange in correct
order
I. Extraction of the desired gene product
II. Amplification of the gene of interest
III. Isolation of a desired DNA fragment
IV. Ligation of the DNA fragment into a vector
V. Insertion of recombinant DNA into the host
Correct order is


468) I. …A… is the ability of a cell to take up foreign DNA
II. The cell is treated with specific concentration of a divalent cation such as …B… to increase pore size in
cell wall
III. In ….C… method recombinant DNA is directly injected into the nucleus of an animal cell
The most appropriate option regarding A, B and C is


469) The most important feature in a plasmid to be used as a vector is


470) DNA gyrase, the enzyme that participates in the process of DNA replication is a type of


471) The key tools required for the recombinant DNA technology are
I. restriction enzymes II. Polymerase enzymes
III. host organism ligases IV. Vectors
V. host organisms
Select the correct option


472) Which of the following infection (s) can be diagnosed by the use of polymerase chain reaction?


473) Agarose is extracted from


474) Which one is a true statement regarding DNA polymerase used in PCR?


475) The two main techniques that gave birth to modern biotechnology are
I. chemical engineering
II. genetic engineering
III. human genome engineering
IV. molecular biology
Choose the correct option


476) Which is incorrect statement?


477) Which of the following would have the highest oxygen transfer rate characteristics?


478) Palaeontologists unearthed a human skull during excavation. A small fragment of the scalp tissue was still
attached to it. Only little DNA could be extracted from it. If the genes of the ancient man need to be
analysed, the best way of getting sufficient amount of DNA from this extract is


479) Ligases catalyse the formation of bonds between


480) The characteristics of a molecular probe are
I. very long molecule
II. double-stranded
III. DNA or RNA
IV. complementary to a part of desired gene
The correct pair is


481) VNTR analysis involves


482) Manipulation of DNA in genetic engineering became possible due to the discovery of


483) Alec Jeffreys developed the DNA fingerprinting technique. The probe he used was


484) In addition to taq polymerase enzyme which other thermostable DNA polymerases have been isolated to
be used in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)?


485) PCR proceeds in three distinct steps governed by temperature. They are in order of


486) In gel electrophoresis, the separated bands of DNA are cut out and extracted from the gel piece. This step
is called


487) Significance of heat shock method in bacterial transformation is facilitate


488) Minisatellite or Variable Number Tendem Repeat (VNTR) are used in


489) Having become an expert on gel electrophoresis, you are asked to examine a gel for a colleague. Where
would you find the smallest segment of DNA?


490) The structure involved in genetic engineering is


491) In agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules are separated on the basis of their


492) In gel electrophoresis, the sample DNA is cut into fragments by


493) In case of polymerase chain reaction, temperature, required for the steps
A. Denaturation
B. Annealing
C. Extension


494) The experimental manipulation of DNA of different species, producing recombination DNA is known as


495) Which of the following statement is correct in the context of observing DNA separated by agarose gel
electrophoresis?


496) Using recombinant technology, genes from a donor cell can be transplanted into a bacterium for DNA
replication and protein synthesis. The kinds of cells that can be used as a donor in this technology are


497) Transformation is defined as the procedure by which a piece of …A… is introduced into a …B… host. Here A
and B refers to


498) The restriction enzyme responsible for the cleavage of following sequence is
5′ − G − T − C − G − A − C − 3′
3′ − C − A − G − C − T − G − 5′


499) Boviene spongiform encephalopathy disease is equal to:


500) Many copies of a DNA molecule in a test tube are produced by:


501) Special sequence in the DNA recognized by restriction endonuclease is called


502) Genetic engineering is possible because:


503) The basic of DNA fingerprinting is:


504) Find the incorrect statement:


505) Gene amplification using primers can be done by


506) Who got the Nobel prize in medicine for their discovery of ‘G-proteins’ and the role of these proteins in the
cells:


507) The genome of Caenorhabditis elgans consists of:


508) Then linking of antibiotic resistance gene with the plasmid vector became possible with:


509) Restriction enzymes are used to cut


510) Restriction enzymes are isolated chiefly from:


511) Which of the following statements is true?


512) The first clone animal of the world is:


513) What is the first step in Southern Blotting technique?


514) The colonies of recombinant bacteria appear white in contrast to blue colonies of non-recombinant
bacteria because of:


515) The first hormone artificially produced by culturing bacteria is:


516) Given below is a sample of a portion of DNA strand giving the base sequence on the opposite strands. What
is so special shown in it?
5’_________GAATTC___________3’
3’_________CTTAAG___________5’


517) The DNA used as a carrier for transferring a fragment of foreign DNA into a suitable host is called


518) The nuclease enzyme, which beings its attack from free end of a polynucleotide, is?


519) In Southern blotting……… is separated by gel electrophoresis:


520) Harris and J.F. Watkins in 1965 first time reported the fusion of following cell lines to form hybrids:


521) PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism are the methods for:


522) Restriction enzymes may be used for:


523) Production of a human protein in bacteria in genetic engineering is possible because:


524) I. Copy number is defined as the number of copies of plasmid present in a cell
II. It varies from 15-100 copies per cell
Choose regarding the above statements


525) Petroleum-lysing bacteria are being engineering for the removal of oil spills. What is the most realistic
danger of these bacteria to the environment?


526) Complete transduction is:


527) The restriction enzyme(s) used in recombinant DNA technology that make staggered cuts in DNA leaving
sticky ends is/are


528) When the number of genes increases in response to some signal, the effect is called:


529) DNA fragments generated by the restriction endonucleases in a chemical reaction can be separated by:


530) A genetically engineered micro-organism used successfully in bioremediation of oil spills is a species of:


531) There is a restriction endonuclease called Eco RI. What does “co” part in it stand for?


532) Enzymes breaking nucleic acids into nucleotides are called:


533) Manipulation of gene and genetic material by man is a fast emerging branch of science which started with the formation of recombinant DNA molecules. This branch of science is named as


534) For transformation, microparticles coated with DNA are to be bombarded with gene gun are made up of:


535) Simple stirred-tank bioreactor is given below. Identify A,B,C,D and E


536) Plasmid is used as carrier because:


537) Variable number of tendem repeats (VTNRs) in the DNA molecule are highly useful in:


538) DNA fingerprinting technique was first developed by: