Practice Test


1) The most significant value of vegetative propagation is that:


2) When mature anthers of Datura inxonia are cultured in a culture medium supplemented with phytohormone named kinetin, coconut milk and plum juice, several embryos can be obtained floating inside the microsporangia. These embryos can develop into plants that are:


3) Use of stem cutting is common method of vegetative propagation. Juvenile wood grows roots more readily than mature wood. The superior rooting of juvenile cutting may be due to:


4) Grafting is used to propagate plants because:


5) Vegetative type of reproduction means:


6) Micropropagation is based on:


7) Grafting is attempted in those plants which show:


8) Improved method of grafting is:


9) The separation of single cell from the rest of the callus is:


10) Konar and Nataraja demonstrated callus i.e., embryoids in buttercup also develops from:


11) Gall knot or Gall nuts on plants is produced by:


12) Witches broom on woody plants in caused by:


13) Mistletoes, Viscum album plants having yellowish flowers and white berries is:


14) Any cell, tissue, or an organ removed from a plant for the purpose of culturing is called:


15) An alkaloid which can be utilized to transform haploid plant into homozygous diploid plant is:


16) The two enzymes utilized to isolate protoplasts from tissues or organs are:


17) Fusion product of protoplast from the differect plants is termed:


18) Potentiality of vegetative cells other than zygote to give rise to an independent plant is known as:


19) First androgenic haploid was raised by:


20) Microbes in the culture chamber are killed most suitably by:


21) Non-pathological erratic growth of a plant tissue involving uncontrolled cell divisions is designated as:


22) Even after killing the generative cell with a laser beam, the pollen grains of tobacco germinate and issue a normal pollen tube because:


23) The entry of pollen tube into embryo sac through the integuments is termed as:


24) 512 microspores will be formed following meiosis of how many spores?


25) An example of triploid tissue is:


26) Triploid plants can be obtained from the culture of:


27) After fertilization synergids and antipodal cells form:


28) Pollen grain in angiosperm develops from:


29) The nucellus of the ovule is:


30) In case of angiosperms, embryo sac represents:


31) The anther wall consists of four wall layers where:


32) How many pollen grain mother cells should undergo meiotic division to produce 64 pollen grains?


33) Emasculation is achieved by:


34) Pollen is produced in the:


35) A flower part whose primary role is protection, is the:


36) In a fully developed male gametophyte the number of nuclei is:


37) The mature anther wall comprises an epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells with fibrous bands of callose called endothecium whose function is:


38) The innermost layer of anther is tapetum whose function is:


39) Ovule represents:


40) Stalk of the ovule is called as:


41) Mature ovules are classified based on the funiculus. If micropyle comes to lie close to the funiculus the ovule is termed as:


42) In a bisexual flower when the gynoecium matures earlier than anther, it is called as:


43) Plants which flower only once in the life are termed as:


44) Translators are found in:


45) Simultaneous meiotic division of microspore mother cells leads to:


46) When micropyle, chalaza and hilum lie in a straight line, the ovule is said to be:


47) Double fertilization was first described by:


48) Secondary nucleus after fusing with one of the male gametes develops into:


49) The fusion of male gamete with secondary nucleus of embryo sac is process of:


50) The fertilization occurs in the:


51) Study of formation, growth and development of a new individual generally from an oospore is known as:


52) If an endosperm cell of an angiosperm contains 24 chromosomes, the number of chromosome in each cell of the root will be:


53) In ovule meiosis occurs in:


54) The female gametophyte of a typical dicot at the time of fertilization is:


55) Development of embryo sac from any cell of nucellus is called:


56) The method of fertilization (in an angiosperm) in which the pollen tube enters the ovule by way of micropyle is known as:


57) Simple fruit develops from:


58) Parthenocarpic fruit is:


59) After fertilization ovary is converted into:


60) Perisperm in angiospermic seed is derived from:


61) The entry of pollen tube into the embryo sacs through the chalaza is called:


62) Ovule is ategenic in:


63) Vivipary is of common occurrence in:


64) Polyembryony commonly occurs in:


65) The main embryo develops from the structure formed as a result of fusion of:


66) Function of obturator for any ovular structure is to:


67) The term xenia denotes the effect of the:


68) Polygonum type of embryo sac is:


69) 256 microspores will be formed as a result of reduction division in how many microspore mother cells:


70) Perisperm is:


71) Which of the following statement is true for the pollen tube:


72) In Angiosperms free nuclear division occurs during:


73) In Albuminous seeds, food is stored in:


74) The seed coat develops from the:


75) Which of the following is required for germination of seeds?


76) Fusion of egg with male gamete is called:


77) In angiosperms the oospore on development produces:


78) For the formation of 50 zygotes in a tobacco plant, the minimal number of meiosis involved would be:


79) A female gametophyte would be found in the:


80) Pollen grain gets nutrition from:


81) In case of angiosperms, pollen grain produces:


82) Sexual reproduction in which morphologically and physiologically similar gametes fuse is termed as:


83) A normal plant suddenly started reproducing parthenogenetically. The number of chromosomes of the second generation as compared to parent plant will be:


84) If cotyledons remains below soil during germination, it is:


85) Seed are dispersed by:


86) Micropyle of ovule allows entry of:


87) Cotyledons form the first pair of leaves in:


88) Protective covering of seeds is called:


89) The number of germ pores in dicot plants is generally:


90) When seeds develop without meiosis and syngamy, the phenomenon is:


91) The inner integument of majority of the dicot seed is:


92) Epigeal seed germination is found in:


93) Which of the following statements is correct?


94) Monosporic, 8 nucleate embryo sac is called:


95) An example of triploid tissue is:


96) If soaked pea seeds are kept in four separate flasks, best germination will be in the flask having:


97) Which of the following plants are likely to have wider range of distribution?


98) During seed germination:


99) In albuminous seeds the food is stored mostly in:


100) Wind dispersed seeds have:


101) Seed germination is hypogeal in:


102) In angiosperms normally after fertilization:


103) The bisporic type of embryo sac development is characterised by the:


104) Grafting is not possible in monocots as they:


105) Inflorescence with flattened axis, sessile flowers and involucre is:


106) Hypanthodium occurs in:


107) An edible inflorescence is:


108) Umbel inflorescence is found in:


109) A plant with both male and female flowers is:


110) Cruciform corolla occurs in:


111) Thalamus is:


112) Heaping of earth around base of stem in Potato is meant for:


113) Bulbils occur in:


114) Embryo sac is:


115) 8-nucleate embryo sac is:


116) A mature male gametophyte is formed from pollen mother cell by:


117) Passage of pollen tube through micropyle while reaching the embryo sac is:


118) Tapetum occurs in:


119) Polygonum type of embryo sac is:


120) Which one is produced as a result of double fertilization?


121) A component of female reproductive system is:


122) Mango and Guava are propagated through:


123) In a grafted plant, stock has 48 chromosomes while scion has 24 chromosomes. The chromosomes number for root cells and eggs are:


124) Pollen grains are non-green due to:


125) Pollen grain of tetraploid plant brings about fertilization in a diploid plant. The endosperm of seed will be:


126) Multinucleate condition is present in:


127) If meiosis occurs inside pollen grain and egg nuclei, it will be:


128) Formation of embryo from vegetative cells derived from zygote is called:


129) Formation of an organisation from a single, male gamete without fusion with egg is an example of:


130) Adventive embryony in Citrus is due to:


131) In grasses what happens in microspore mother cell for the formation of mature pollen grains:


132) Which of the following statements is wrong:


133) Double fertilization was given by:


134) Hydroponics is:


135) Number of nuclei present in common embryo sac are:


136) Perisperm is:


137) In a flowering plant, archesporium gives rise to:


138) Pollen grains are able to tolerate extremes of temperature and desiccation because their exine consists of:


139) Plant part having two generations, one within the other is:


140) Pollen tube usually enters the embryo sac:


141) A plant root has 16 cells thus:


142) Anthesis is a phenomenon which refers to:


143) A diploid female plant is crossed with tetraploid male. The ploidy of endosperm will be:


144) Which of the following represents the edible part of the fruit of Litchi?


145) Through which cell of the embryo sac, does the pollen tube enter the embryo sac?


146) Which one of the following represents an ovule, where the embryo sac becomes horse-shoe shaped and the funiculus and mircopyle are close to each other?


147) Why is vivipary an undesirable character for annual crop plants?


148) In which one pair both the plants can be vegetatively propagated by leaf pieces?


149) In a type of apomixis known as adventive embryony, embryos develop directly from the:


150) Double fertilization involves:


151) In some plants anthers and stigma grow and mature at same time. This phenomenon is called:


152) For the formation of tetrasporic embryo sac, how many megaspore mother cells are required?


153) Pollen sac in Cycas is called:


154) In the angiosperm ovule central cell of the embryo sac, prior to the entry of pollen tube, contains:


155) Xenia refer to:


156) Pollination by snail and slug is known as:


157) The arrangement of the nuclei in a normal embryo sac in the dicot plants is:


158) Which one of the following is surrounded by a callose wall?


159) Male gemetes in angiosperms are formed by the division of:


160) Eight nucleate embryo sacs are:


161) Double fertilization (or triple fusion) leading to initiation of endosperm in angiosperms, requires:


162) Many scientists consider viruses as living entities because these:


163) The mode of asexual reproduction in bacteria are:


164) Study of pollen grain is called:


165) Endosperm is consumed by developing embryo in the seed of:


166) Nucellar polyembryony is reported in species of:


167) Filiform apparatus is a characterisitic feature of:


168) What would be the number of chromosomes of aleurone cells of a plant with 42 chromosomes in its root tip cells?


169) Which is the only method for compensation of loss of life due to death?


170) Which of the following is not involved in development?


171) In plants, special modes of propagation is/are:


172) Any detached portion of plant can form a new plant called natural method of propagation. In which of following underground stem is used for propagation?


173) Applying special technique plants can be artificially cultured. The method, gootee is involved in the propagation of:


174) The mature anther dehisces by means of slits. The pollen grain is:


175) Which of the following is first cell of male gametophyte?


176) Inside the ovary there is one or more:


177) Suspensor helps in pushing the embryo deep into endosperm. Suspensor formation in Sagittatia occurs at celled stage:


178) Xenia is due to the effect of second male gamete fusing with secondary nucleus. Term 'Xenia was coined by:


179) Microscopic structure in a flower that contains the polar nuclei is:


180) Embryo sac is:


181) Sporophytic budding occurs in orange, mango, opuntia and onion. It occura in:


182) The epibasal cell divides repeatedly to produce a row of ... cell durying development in a dicot plant:


183) Incompatibility is the inability of certain gametes, even from genetically similar plant species, to fuse with each other. If it is due to genotype of pollen termed:


184) Double fertilization is:


185) Which of the following statements is correct?


186) How many divisions of functional megaspore undergo to form mature embryo sac?


187) What you think is the correct sequence of the development of the embryo sac?


188) Diversity of structures of the inflorescences, flower and floral parts -


189) Which of the following is false ?


190) The proximal part of filament of stamen is attached to -


191) Microsoparangium is generally surrounded by 4 wall layers. Which of the following 3 wall layers perform the function of protection and help the dehiscence of anther to release the pollen ?


192) Each cell of sporogenous tissue in anther is -


193) Which of the following sequences is correct for microsporogenesis ?


194) As the anthers mature and dehydrate, the ___ separate dissociate from each other and develop into


195) Pollen grains of different species show characteristic difference in -


196) Pollen grain ___ has prominent apertures called ___ where sporopollenin is ___.


197) Which of the following points is incorrect about sporopollenin ?


198) The inner wall of pollen grain -


199) The first division in a pollen grain results in formation of -


200) In angiosperms pollination occurs when pollen grains are in -


201) Which of the following statements is false ?
(I) Pollen grains represents immatured male gametophyte
(II) In angiosperms partially developed male gametophytes are pollinated
(III) Generative cell is siponogenous while vegetative cell is spermatogenous
(IV) Formation and differentiation of pollen grains is called microsporogenesis
(V) Hay fever is a pollen allergy
(VI) Pollen grains of some plants produce severe allergy and respiratory or bronchial diseases
(VII) Pollen grains are poor in nutrients.


202) Which of the following is correct about Parthenium (Carrot grass) ?


203) It has become a fashion in recent years to use ___ tablets as food supplements. In western countries, a large number of ___ products in the form of tablets and syrups are available in the market. ___ consumption has been claimed to increase the performance of athletes and race horses -


204) Pollen grains can be stored in liquid nitrogen at -


205) The viability of pollen grains depends upon -


206) Which of the following has the least pollen viability ?


207) Micropyle is found in -


208) Which of the following sequences of development of embryo sac / female gametophyte is correct ?


209) An ovule has generally how many embryo sac ?


210) For the formation of embryo sac, the megaspore mother cell undergoes -


211) In typical embryo sac, the nuclei are arranged as -


212) The female gametophyte / embryo sac of typical dicot (Polygonum) or monosporic embryo sac is -


213) Embryo sac is monosporic when it develops from -


214) Egg apparatus of an embryo sac consists of -


215) The largest cell in an embryo sac is -


216) During the formation of embryo sac from megaspore miotic divisions occurs. These divisions are -


217) Which of the following statements is false about filiform apparatus ?


218) The ploidy levels of the cells of the nucellus, MMC, the functional megaspore and female gametophyte -


219) The term pollination signifies -


220) Autogamy is -


221) Contrivance for self-pollination / autogamy is -


222) Cleistogamous flowers produce assured seed-set even in the absence of pollinator - why ?


223) Which of the following plants produce(s) chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers ?


224) Chasmogamy is pollination in -


225) Which of the following devices is not used by plants to prevent autogamy -


226) Subterranean cleistogamous and geophilous flowers occur in -


227) Pollination occuring in closed flowers is -


228) Cleistogamous flowers are -


229) The process whereby a perfect flower is pollinated by its pollen is called -


230) The term used when anthers and stigma of an intersexual or perfect flower ripen before the opening of buds as in wheat and pea is -


231) Transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of another flower of same plant is -


232) Geitonogamy is -


233) Which of the following is false about xenogamy ?


234) In nature, allogamy is met within ___ surely -


235) Go through the following statements -
(I) Flowers are bisexual and homogamous maturing anther and sigma of a flower at the same time
(II) Mechanical devices bringing anthers and stigma close together in a bisexual chasmogamous flower
(III) Cleistogamy (bisexual flowers remain closed)
(IV) Anther and sigma of an intersexual flower mature in bud condition.
The above contrivances favour -


236) Go through the following points.
(I) Dicliny (Unisexuality of flower)
(II) Dichogamy (Protoandry or protogyny)
(III) Self sterility / self incompatibility
(IV) Heterosyly
(V) Herkogamy (Barrier between anther and stigma of a bisexual homogamous flower)
The above contrivances prevent -


237) Which of the following statements is correct ?


238) Go through the following statements -
I. Flowers are smail. They are often packed in inflorescence
II. Flowers are colourless, nectarless and odourless
III. Well exposed stamens
IV. Pollen grains - produced in large number, light, non-sticky
V. Flowers often have a single ovule in each ovary
VI. Stigma - large, often feathery.
The above contrivances favour -


239) Which of the following is false?


240) Long silky hair coming out of the cob maize are -


241) Which of the following statement is false ?
I. Vallisneria and Hydrilla are fresh water plants while sea-grasses (e.g. Zostera) are marine plant
II. Vallisneria is epihydrophilous while zostera is hypohydrophilous.
III. Pollination in water lily/Lotus (Nymphea) and Eichhornia (water hyacinth) takes place by insects
IV. In majority of aquatic plants flowers emerge above the level of water and are pollinated by insects or wind
V. In most of the water pollinated species, pollen grains are protected from wetting due to absence of mucilaginous covering
VI. In hydrophilous plants pollen grains are spherical.


242) In Tapegrass (Vallisneria) -


243) The most common type of pollination is -


244) Find out the correct option -


245) Moth (Pronuba / Tegaticula) passes its larval stage in plant pollinated by it. The plant is


246) An obligate association between flower and pollinating agent is found in -


247) Which of the following plants provide floral rewards to their pollinating agents -


248) Which of the following are usual floral rewards to pollinating animals ?


249) I. Flowers are usually large, colorful, fragrant
II. Pollen grains are produced in large number
III. Pollen grains are light in weight and non-sticky
IV. Sticky pollen grains
V. Stigma inserted and sticky
VI. Stigma is feathery
VII. Edible pollen grains and nectar.
Which of the above characters favour entomophily?


250) Which of the following is the tallest flower?


251) In castor and maize autogamy is prevented but geitonogamy occurs because -


252) All of the following include outbreeding devices except -


253) Repeated self pollination over the generation produces -


254) Unisexuality of flower prevents -


255) What is the genetic importance of outcrossing ?


256) Which of the following would not have an effect on flowering of a particular plant species ?


257) Majority of flowering plants -


258) Self-incompatibility -
(I) is a device to prevent inbreeding
(II) Provides a biochemical block to self-fertilization
(III) Ensures cross-fertilization
(IV) is governed by pollen-pistil interaction
(V) is governed by series of multiple alleles
(VI) Prevents self pollen (From the same flower or other flower of the same plant) from fertilizing the ovules by inhibiting pollen germination or pollen tube growth in the pistil.


259) In which part of a flower do both meiosis and fertilization occur ?


260) Self-incompatibility -


261) Which of the following options is correct ?


262) The ability of the pistil to recognise the pollen followed by its acceptance or rejection is the result of a continuous dialogue between pollen grain and the pistil.
This dialogue is mediated by chemical components of the pollen interacting with those of the pistil. Which of the following chemicals mainly takes part in the interaction -


263) Which of the following is correct ?


264) Total number of nuclei involved in double fertilization is -


265) Fertilization is depicted by the condition -


266) Pollen tube enters the embryo sac usually -


267) In double fertilization total number of male nuclei and total number of female nuclei involved are -


268) One meiosis produces how many male gametes -


269) Following components are haploid, diploid or triploid
A = Oosphere
B = Microspore
C = Synergids
D = Antipodal cell
E = Oospore
F = Nucellus
G = Placenta
H = Chalaza
I = Endosperm
J = Tapetum
Which of following groups show the correct sequence of the ascending order of ploidy in ovule /seed ?


270) The number of chromosomes in radicle is 16.What will be the number of chromosomes in tube nucleus, antipodal cells,definitive nucleus and endosperm respectively ?


271) Female plant is diploid and male plant is tetraploid. Find out the correct match.


272) A homogamous tall pistillate plant (TT) is crossed with homogamous dwarf st. What is the genotype of endosperm ?


273) The cells of endosperm have 24 chromosomes. What will be the number of chromosomes in the gametes -


274) The male gamete is x and egg is 3x. The ploidy level in embryo and endosperm will be -


275) For artificial hybridisation experiment in bisexual flower, which of the sequences is correct ?


276) Which of the following is false about emasculation ?


277) Emasculation is not required when flowers are -


278) The purpose of bagging an emasculated flower in artificial hybridisation programme is


279) After triple fusion central cell changes into -


280) The study of formation, growth and development of new individual from an egg is called -


281) Father of Indian embryology is -


282) Endosperm in angiosperm is formed from secondary nucleus-


283) Which of the following is false ?
(I) Endosperm formation starts prior to first division of zygote
(II) Angiospermic endosperm is mostly 3N while gymnospermic one is N
(III) The most common type of endosperm is nuclear.
(IV) Coconut has both liquid nuclear (multinucleate) and cellular endosperm
(V) Milky water of green tender coconut is liquid female gametophyte.


284) In a fertilized ovule, n, 2n and 3n conditions occur respectively in -


285) In coconut liquid nuclear endosperm is surrounded by white kernel which is -


286) Nuclear or cellular nature of endosperm can be known at a -


287) Endosperm is completely consumed by developing embryo before seed maturation or exalbuminous / non-endospermic seeds are found in -


288) Albuminous / endospermic seeds are -


289) Which of the sequences is correct for embryogenesis in dicots?


290) Which of the sequences is correct for embryogenesis in dicots?


291) Embryos of monocotyledons possess only one __(A)__. In the grass family the cotyledon is called __(B)__ that is situated towards one side (lateral) of the embroynal axis. At its lower end, the embryonal axis has the radical and root cap enclosed in an undifferentiated sheath called __(C)__.
The portion of the embryonal axis above the level of attachment of scutellum is the __(D)__ which has a shoot and apex enclosed in a foilar structure called __(E)__.


292) (I) No endosperm
(II) Endosperm present
(III) Cotyledons - thin
(IV) Cotyledons - thick
(V) Food is stored in cotyledons
(VI) Food is stored in endosperms
Sort out correct points (from I to VI) for (A) - Albuminous and (B) - Exalbuminous seeds.


293) In some seeds like black pepper and beet, remnants of nucellus are present. This residual, persistent nucellus is called -


294) Aleurone layer takes part in -


295) During germination, micropyle of seed takes part in -


296) Which are the external conditions required for seed germination -


297) Seed dormancy allows the plants to -


298) An example of a seed with endosperm, perisperm and caruncle is -


299) Study of pollen grains is -


300) Secondary nucleus is formed by -


301) Which plant part has two generations, one within the other -


302) Which of the following is false ?


303) Which of the following is not correct ?


304) Which of the following will lost its economic value if fruits are produced through parthenocarphy.


305) In most plants; the fruit develops from the ovary, other parts degenerate and fall off such fruits are called -


306) False fruits (thalamus also contributes to fruit formation) are found in -


307) Which of the following statements is correct ?


308) Which of the following is crucial for storage of seeds to be used as food throughout the year and to raise crops in the next season ?


309) The cause of dormancy for sometime in fertilized ovule is -


310) The role of tapetum in the formation of pollen grain wall includes all except -


311) Seeds are adaptively important because -


312) The world's oldest viable seed, excavated from Arotic Tundra is of -


313) Which of the following statements is false ?


314) Which of the following statements is false ?


315) Hybrid seeds have to be produced every year because -


316) Active research is going on in many laborateries around the world to understand the genetics of apomixis.
What is the purpose of such active research ?


317) In citrus, a seed has 10 embryos. Out of 10 embryos -


318) Wind pollination is common in


319) In which one of the following pollination is autogamous ?


320) What would be number of chromosomes of aleurone cells of plant with 42 chrosome in its root tip cells ?


321) What is common between vegetative reproduction and Apomixis ?


322) What is the function of germ pore ?


323) Which one of the following statements is wrong ?


324) Plants with ovaries having only one or a few ovules, are generally pollinated by :


325) Both, autogamy and geitonogamy are prevented in -


326) An organic substance that can withstand environmental extremes and cannot be degraded by any enzyme is :


327) The gynoecium consists of many free pistils in flowers of


328) Even in absence of pollinating agents seed setting is assured in


329) Megasporangium is equivalent to :


330) Which one of the following statements is correct ?


331) Product of sexual reproduction generally generates :


332) Advantage of cleistogamy is


333) Perisperm differs from endosperm in


334) The innermost wall layer of microsporangium nourishing the developing pollen grains is known as


335) Number of male gamete formed by 16 microspore mother cell is


336) Unisexuality of flowers prevents -


337) Pollen tablets are available in the market for :


338) An immature male gametophyte differs from a mature male gametophyte in that it


339) Which of the following finds application in hybrid seed industry ?


340) How many and which type of male gametes are produced by the male gametophyte of angiosperm ?


341) 'Seeds are the basis of our agriculture and offer several advantages to angiosperms'. Find the odd statement among the following ?


342) Pollen tube, after reaching the ovary, does not show following event.


343) Find odd one with the respect to the stage which occurs after most vital event of sexual life cycle of angiosperms.


344) Pollen tube releases the two male gamete into the


345) In a majority of flowering plants :


346) Find one word for the following statements and choose the correct option.
(I) Residual, persistent nucellus in seed - A
(II) Microspores arranged in a cluster of four cells - B
(III) Special cellular thickening at the micropylar end of embryo sac - C
(IV) Development of seeds without fertilisation - D


347) Consider the following statements with respect to flowering plants.
A : The pollen grains represent the male gametes.
B : The functional megaspore develops into the embryo sac represent the female gamete
C : Transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of different plant is known as Xenogamy
D : Transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of another flower of the same plant is known as geitonogamy.
Of the above statements


348) Which of the following is false in angiosperms ?


349) Consider the following statements and choose the correct option.
A : The ovule is attached to the placenta by means of a stalk called filament.
B : The ovule fuses with the stalk in the region called hilum.
C : The two protective envelopes of ovule are called integuments.
D : The small opening in the tip of ovule is called germ pore.
Of the above statements


350) If there are 1280 microspores in a tetralocular anther, how many microspore mother cells will be there in its each pollen chamber ?


351) Large stout, nocturnal flowers producing copious nectar and emitting fermenting fruity odour, are the adaptations for


352) What is not true about emasculation of a flower while performing an artificial cross ?


353) Papaya is a dioecious plant. This condition prevents


354) Egg in female gametophyte is accompanied by


355) The hilum is a scar on the


356) Which one of the following statements is not true ?


357) Which one of the following may require pollinators, but is genetically similar to autogamy ?


358) Which of the following are the important floral rewards to the animal pollinators ?


359) The wheat grain has an embryo with one large, shield shaped cotyledon known as


360) In angiosperms, microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis


361) Male gametophyte in angiosperms produces


362) Coconut water from a tender coconut is


363) In the given list how many plants have unisexual flowers on the same plant.
Cucurbits, Papaya, Castor, Coconut, Date palm, Maize


364) Wind pollination is quite common in -


365) In which of following for artificial hybridisation there is no need for emasculat -


366) In the given list of plants how many have albuminous seeds ?
Pea, Wheat, Groundnut, Maize, Barley, Castor


367) The coconut water from tender coconut represents -


368) Proximal end of the filament of stamen is attached to the


369) Which of the following statements is not correct ?


370) Seed formation without fertilizaton in flowering plants involves the process of -


371) Cotyledon of maize grain is called -


372) Which one of the following statements is not true ?


373) In majority of angiosperms :


374) Pollination in water hyacinth and water lily is brought about by the agency of :


375) The ovule of an angiosperm is technically equivalent to :


376) In embryo sac double fertilization means :
(I) Formation of double zygote.
(II) Fusion between egg and male gamete.
(III) Formation of perisperm
(IV) Fusion between secondary nucleus and male gamete.


377) Parthenocarpic fruit


378) Seed is


379) Find out the correct statement


380) Vegetative fertilization leading to the formation of endosperm refers to


381) Which of the following is the result of double fertilization?


382) Perisprem is found in


383) The ‘eyes’ of the potato tuber are


384) True fruit is directly derived from


385) Intine is made up of


386) The arrangement of the nuclei in a normal embryo sac in the dicot plants, is


387) Pericarp is


388) The function innermost layer of pollen sac, tapetum is


389) The movement of pollen tube is called


390) Which of the following statements is wrong?


391) Triple fusion in angiosperm is the fusion of second sperm with


392) ‘Mircrospores arranged in a cluster of four cells called megaspore tetrad’.
The above statement is


393) Insect pollinated flowers are


394) The fusion of male and female pronuclei of the gametes is called


395) A scion is grafted to a stock. The quality of fruits produced will be determined by the genotype of


396) When pollen is transferred from anther of a flower to stigma of the another of the another flower of the same plant, it is referred to as


397) False fruit is a fruit in which


398) Synergid’s filiform apparatus


399) Double fertilization occurs among


400) Scutellum is


401) Sporopollenin is chemically


402) Which one of the following is not a correct explanation of cross-pollination?


403) How many cells are found in female gametophyte?


404) Identify the wrong statements regarding post-fertilization development.


405) Two nuclei with one cell are found in


406) 8-nucleated embryo sac are


407) Microspore develops into ova. This sentence is


408) During the formation of embryo sac, the functional megaspore undergoes


409) What would be the number of chromosomes in the cells of the aleurone layer in a plant species with 8 chromosomes in its synergids?


410) In a type of apomixes known as adventive embryony, embryos develop directly from the


411) Male gametes wheather 2 celled or 3-celled are identical in genetic make up because


412) Apomixis arises due to


413) Endosperm is consumed by developing embryo in the seed of


414) Haploid plants derived from microspore culture are preferred over diploids for mutation studies, because in haploids


415) The number of female nuclei involved in double fertilization is


416) A micropyle is a


417) PEC (Primary Endosperm Cell) is formed


418) In ovule protective covering (integuments) are generally _______ in number


419) These processes are necessary for the complete development of male gametophyte from pollen mother cell.


420) Majority of plants are


421) Individual part or segment of calyx is called


422) Pollination by insect is


423) Sexual reproduction leads to


424) A bisexual flower which never open, is known as


425) Fruit and seed develops


426) Characteristics of wind pollinated pollens is, they are


427) In chasmogamy pollination takes place in


428) Which is most crucial for seed storage?


429) Entry of pollen tube with two male gametes and tube nucleus through micropyle, is


430) Syngamy is the process in which


431) Pollen grains of different plants, differ in


432) Which one of the following is a reference to xenogamy ?


433) Selaginella and Salvinia considered to represent a significant step towards evolution of seed habit because


434) Zygote is always


435) Occurrence of more than four spores from a spore mother cell is called


436) Type of pollination in commelina is


437) Pollens have two prominent walls which are … A … and … B …. Here A and B refers to


438) If there are four cells in a anther, what will be the number of pollen grains?


439) Xenogamy or cross-pollination is performed by
I. Abiotic agencies
II.Biotic agencies
III.Insects only
Select the correct option for the given question


440) In wind pollination the pollens are feathery, whether it is


441) Identify the characters with reference to the plant in which eight nucleated embryo sac was first studied by strasburger.
I.Micropyle, chalaza and funiculus are arranged in the same vertical line In the ovule.
II. presence of both unisexual and bisexual flowers in the same plant.
III.Filiform apparatus helps in conduction of food materials from Endosperm to egg apparatus.
IV. Long funiculus coils like a watch spring around the ovule.


442) Devices for self-pollination are


443) Chalazal pole is present


444) Vegetative fertilization is also called


445) Vegetative/Asexual reproduction and apomixis are common in


446) Xenia refers to


447) Long silky hairs on cob of maize are


448) The endosperm in angiosperm develops from


449) What is pollen grain?


450) Type of cell division takes place in apomixes is


451) Out of the following choose the post-fertilisation events


452) Apomixis is like


453) Parthenium or carrot grass is imported with


454) Pollination by snail and slug is called


455) Some plant have a habit of harbouring ants to save the plants from damage by other animals which is known as


456) The wall of pollen tube is made of


457) One advantage of cleistogamy is


458) Flower is a


459) Cleistogamous flowers are trictly autogamous because they remain


460) Wind pollinated flowers often have


461) Continued self-pollination results in


462) Wind pollinated flowers are


463) ‘Cells at the chalazal end are called synergid cells’. The above statement is


464) Orthotropous ovule belongs to


465) Center of each microsporangium is occupied by


466) Which of the following plant products is the hardest?


467) Functional megaspore develops into …A… also called …B… A and B in the above sentence is


468) Syngamy and triple fusion is called …A… . The central cell becomes …B… develops into …C… and zygote develops into …D…
A, B, C, D in the above statement are


469) Dicot embryo consists of


470) First three layers of microsporangium which does the function of protection are


471) Nucellar polyembryony is reported in species of


472) Nucellus forms which of the following parts of fruit?


473) Mesogamy is


474) Identify the correct statement.


475) Which of the following perform microsporogenesis?


476) Tapetum is found in


477) Double fertilization was discovered by


478) Microsporangium produces


479) Grafting is successful in dicots but not in monocots because the dicots have


480) Megaspore mother cell is found near the region of


481) Ovule integument gets transformed into


482) Triple fusion in angiosperm is the fusion of second sperm with


483) Which one of the following pairs of plants structures has haploid number of chromosomes?


484) Self-incompatibility is a device for
I. Ensuring cross-pollination
II. Preventing self-pollination
III. Ensuring self-fertilisation
IV. Genetic control for self-fertilisation
Choose the correct statements from those given above


485) How many number of nuclei are involved in fertilization?


486) Ovules contain many embryo in


487) Maximum viability of rice and wheat is


488) For a gene if AA = male plant, BB = female plant. Find out the genotype of endosperm and embryo


489) Micropyle helps in


490) The ovary after fertilization is converted into


491) Which of these is not essential for allogamy?


492) ‘In coconut the cellular endosperm surrounds the nuclear endosperm’.
The above statement is


493) Hermaphrodite flower have


494) Unisexuality of flowers prevents


495) Stalk with which ovules attached to the placenta is called


496) Self-pollination means


497) Meiotic cell division takes place during


498) The outermost layer of maize endosperm is known as


499) Why sometimes, even diploid offspring is produced through parthenogenesis?


500) The process in which haploid embryo is formed from haploid egg without fertilization is called


501) Which of the following floral parts forms pericarp after fertilization?


502) Tapetal cells are characterized by


503) Pollen grains can cause


504) Non-albuminous seed


505) Development of an embryo without fertilization Is called as


506) Non-endospermic seeds are seen in


507) The cylindrical portion below the cotyledons is …A… that terminates to …B… and tip called …C… A, B and C here refers to


508) The type of pollination adaptation found in calotropis is


509) Fertilization of egg takes place inside


510) If the number of chromosomes in egg cell is 8, then what is the number of chromosomes on endosperm?


511) Find out right statement (s)
I. Most common endosperm is of nuclear type
II. Coconut water is male gametophyte
III. Coconut has both nucellar and cellular type of endosperm


512) Number of seeds is equals to the


513) Nuclear polyembryony is reported in


514) A normal plant suddenly started reproducing parthenogenetically. The number of chromosomes of the second generation as compared to the parent will be


515) The process of transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigmatic surface with the help of water is called


516) Anemophily is a type of pollination found in


517) I. Antipodal cell
II. Egg cell
III. Synergid cell
IV. Polar nuclei
V. Male gamete
VI. Nuclear cell
IV. Chalazal cell
Out of the seven names given above, find out haploid cells


518) There are 10 flowers in one individual plant of crotalaria. In each microsporangium of every stamen of all the flowers, there are 30 microspore mother cells. How many pollen grains are formed from that plant?


519) Apomictic embryos in Citrus arise from


520) Chances of pollination in air and water are increased by increasing number of pollens. This statement is


521) Micropyle is formed by


522) In a flowering plants, megaspore develops into an embryo sac, which contains


523) What does the filiform apparatus do at the entrance into ovule?


524) Function of aleurone layer is to


525) Pollination by bats is called


526) Which one of the following is not a device to promote cross-pollination?


527) Which cell is bigger and have abundant food reserve material during microsporogenesis?


528) In artificial hybridization the steps involved are
I. Bagging
II. Emasculation
III. Rebagging
Their right arrangement is


529) In some plants, anthers and stigmas grow and mature at same time. This phenomenon is called


530) Double fertilization is fusion of


531) How many nuclei are found in female gametophyte?


532) An ovule is a


533) Nuclear endosperm has


534) A typical angiosperm embryo sac at maturity, is


535) Device to discourage self-pollination or increase cross-pollination is


536) Occurrence of more than one embryo is called


537) Grass family (Poaceae) contains


538) What is the ratio of equational divisions that take place in Cycas and angiosperms respectively leading to the formation to male gametes from pollen grains?


539) Pollen grains are shed at


540) Which of these cells is the largest cell of the ovule?


541) In orthotropous ovule, the micropyle and chalaza are


542) Pick out the wrong statement.


543) The onagrad type embroyo, development is found in


544) Male gametes in angiosperms are formed by the division of


545) In the fully organized Polygonum type of embryo sac, what is the ratio of haploid, diploid and triploid nuclei?


546) Megasporogenesis is


547) Fibrous thickenings of hygroscopic nature are found in which part of the anther wall?


548) Which one of following represents an ovule, where the embryo sac becomes horse-shoe shaped and the funiculus and micropyle are close to each other


549) In angiosperm functional megaspore develops into


550) Ornithophily refers to the pollination by which of the following?


551) Raphe is


552) The pollens are liberated in cassytha by


553) Pollen kit material is secreted by


554) Wind pollinated flower have long well exposed stigma. This statement is


555) Microsporangia develops in to


556) Pollen grains have ability to tolerate extreme temperatures because of the presence of


557) An interesting modification of flower shape for insect pollination occurs in some orchids in which a male insect mistakes the pattern on the orchid flower for the female of his species and tries to copulate with it, thereby pollinating the flower. This phenomenon is called


558) Petals together form


559) Cleistogamous flowers


560) Autogamy stands for


561) Pollens outer layer is called …A… . This is made up of …B… . This is absent on the …C… . Fill in the blanks A,B and C


562) “In Western countries a large number of …… Product in the form of tablets and ……. are available in market. Pollen consumption claimed to increase the …… of athelete”. The words to fill blanks in sequential order are


563) Tapetum is


564) Formation of diploid embryo sac from diploid vegetative structure, eg, nucellus or integument, etc, without meiosis is called


565) The terminal structure of stamen is called


566) Generally pollen tube enters through


567) Water pollinated plant is


568) Endospermic seeds are seen in


569) Parthenogenesis is a type of


570) Banana fruits are seedless, because


571) Which of the following is not true for double fertilization?


572) Mature male gametophyte is derived from a ‘pollen mother cell’ by


573) Embryo sac is also known as


574) Albuminous seed


575) How many nuclei take part in double fertilization of flowering plants?


576) A typical dicotyledonous embryo consist of an …A… axis and …B… cotyledons.
The portion of embryonal axis above the level of cotyledons is …C… which terminates with the …D… or stem tip.
A, B, C, D in the above statement are


577) Transfer of pollen grains from one flower to another flower of same plant is


578) Which one of the following statements is not true?


579) In embryo sac the number of → synergid → egg cell → central cell → antipodal cell follows the order


580) Choose the mis –matched option.


581) Which one of the following would not lead to formation of clones?


582) Apomixis is seen in


583) Ovary develops into


584) Pollination is


585) Approximate diameter of pollen grain is


586) In porogamy, pollen tube enters the ovule through the


587) A seed matures if water content is reduced to …’A’ ….. . If the general metabolism …B…. . The embryo enter a state called … C … .
Choose correct option for A,B and C


588) What will be the gametic chromosome number of a cell, if somatic cell have 40 chromosomes?


589) Stem cutting are commonly used for the propagation of


590) The fertilization in which male gametes are carried through pollen tube, is known as


591) If endosperm has 36 number of chromosomes then find out the chromosome number of male and female gamete


592) For the formation of tetrasporic embryo sac, how many megaspore mother cells are required?


593) The phenomenon in which, anther and stigma grow and mature at same time is called


594) Emasculation is not required in


595) Testa of a seed is produced from


596) Thalamus contributes in the fruit formation in


597) Most oldest viable seed is of


598) Which one of the following was observed for the first time by Trenb?


599) Self incompatibility is


600) In embryo sac, n, 2n, 3n, conditions are found respectively in


601) Which one of the following is resistant to enzyme action?


602) Pollens are considered as well preserved fossils due to the presence of


603) Double fertilization involves


604) Seed germination requires
I. Ligh
II. Temp suitable
III. Moisture
IV. Oxygen
Select correct option


605) In which one pair, both the plants can be vegetatively propagated by leaf pieces?


606) Larger nucleus in a pollen grain is


607) Tallest flower is Amorphophallus. It is


608) Anthesis is


609) Single megasporic development is called


610) Consider the following statements and choose the correct option.
I. The genetic constitution of a plant is unaffected in vegetative propagation.
II. Rhizome in ginger serves as an organ of vegetative reproduction.
III. Totipotency of cells enables us to micropropagate plants.


611) Micropyle exists in


612) Which one of the following is surrounded by a callose wall?


613) In Amorphophyllus and Yucca, the moth lay egg into the


614) Which of the following is incorrect in angiosperm?


615) Aleurone layer is found in


616) Advantage of seed is/are


617) Epicotyle is the upper part of embryonal axis in


618) Ruminate endosperm is found in the seeds of family


619) The process of embryo formation without fertilization, is known as


620) Micropyle is useful for the entry of


621) Cleistogamous flower is found in


622) Find out the odd one.


623) The outermost and inner most wall layers of microporangium in anther are (respectively)


624) Microsporogenesis is


625) Function of micropyle is


626) Bright colouration of flowers is an adaptation for


627) If root of flowering plant has 24 chromosomes then its gamete has how many chromosomes?


628) If stock contains 58 chromosomes and scion contains 30 chromosomes,Then how many chromosomes are present in root and egg cell of resultant plant respectively?


629) In some organisms, karyokinesis is not followed by cytokinesis as a result of which, multinucleate condition arises leading to the formation of syncytium. The perfect example for this is


630) The process of formation of microspore from the microspore mother cell is called megasporogenesis. The above statement is


631) From which cells of embryo, plumule is produced?


632) Triploid tissue in angiosperms, is


633) … A… egg cell, …B… zygote, …C… endosperm. Find out the correct ploidy nature of A, B and C


634) The ovule attached to the placenta of ovary wall by


635) Apomixis is the development of


636) The plant part which consists of two generations one within the other, is


637) Find out right statement (s)
I. Endosperm formation is the prior event than zyote formation.
II. Angiospermic endosperm is 3n.
III. Gymnospermic endosperm is n.


638) Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of another flower of the same plants is called


639) After fertilization, the outer integument forms


640) Water pollination


641) Plants of which one of the following groups of genera are pollinated by the same agency?


642) Pollens are be stored at which temperature


643) The total number of nuclei involved in double fertilization in angiosperms are


644) In a flowering plant, the pollen tube first arrives in


645) Filiform apparatus are


646) What would be the number of chromosomes of the aleurone cell of a plant with 42 chromosomes in its root tip cells?


647) Filiform apparatus is a characteristic feature of


648) An angiospermic leaf carries 16 chromosomes. The number of chromosomes in its endosperm will be


649) Embryo developed from the somatic cells are called


650) Wind pollinated and water pollinated plants


651) The endosperm in angiosperms develops from


652) ‘Cells in the micropylar region are called antipodal cell’


653) Sporopollenin is made up of organic material’. The above statement is


654) Viability of date palm seed is


655) Coleorhiza is


656) Sugarcane is cultivated through


657) ‘Sporopollenin is absent at the germpore’. The above statement is


658) Why seed dormancy takes place?


659) One of the most resistant known biological material is


660) It is process of embryo sac formation from cell of nucellus, without undergoing meiosis.


661) Study the following statements and choose the correct option.
I – Tapetum nourishes the developing pollen grains.
II- Hilum represents the junction between ovule and funicle
III– In aquatic plants such as water hyacinth and water lily, pollination is by water. IV- The primary endosperm nucleus is tripoid.


662) Mass of cells enclosed by integuments is called


663) Which of the following statements about sporopollenin is false?


664) Genotype of endosperm is ZZA, find out the genotype of male and female plant respectively


665) An ovule which becomes curved so that the nucellus and embryo sac lie at right angles to the funicle is


666) Polar nuclei are located in


667) A typical angiosperm anther is


668) Wind pollination is common in grassess. This statement is


669) Study the following and find correct option
I. Tapetum nurishes the developing pollen grain
II. Hilum represents the junction between ovule and funicle
III. In aquatic plants such as water hyacinth and lilly pollination is by water
IV. The primary endosperm nucleus is triploid


670) Apogamy is


671) Number of microsporangia in an angiospermic anther is


672) Which of the following statement is/are true
I. Endothecium lies behind epidermis
II. Fusion of egg with male gamete is called apogamy.
III. Synergids are haploid
IV. The point at which funicle touches the ovule is raphe.


673) Egg apparatus of angiosperms consist of


674) Pollen tube enters through


675) Aquatic plant like water-hyacinth and water lily are pollinated by


676) Function of tapetum is to provide


677) Root has 42 chromosome then find out the chromosomal number of synergid


678) In nature, cleistogamous flowers are


679) Among the sets of terms given below, identify those that are associated with gynoecium


680) The nutritive layer of microsporangia of cypsella


681) A longitudinal groove runs lengthwise separating the theca. This groove is called line of dehiscence. The above sentence is


682) For good growth of pollen tube, necessary element is


683) In the angiosperm ovule, central cell of the embryo sac, prior to the entry of pollen tube, contains


684) Anemophily is pollination by


685) Polyembryony is a type of


686) Viability of lupine seed is


687) Perisprem is


688) Which of the following statement is true with reference to cross pollination in angiosperms?


689) In which one of the following pollination is autogamous?


690) In an angiosperm, male plant is diploid and female plant is tetraploid then endosperm will be


691) Through which cell of the embryo sac, does the pollen tube enter the embryo sac?


692) Milky water of tender coconut is


693) The ovule in which the funicle, chalaza and micropyle lie in one vertical plane, is called


694) Pericarp is formed of


695) Which of the following is pollinated by water?


696) Ubisch bodies are secreted by


697) Which of the following parts in angiosperms are diploid and triploid, respectively?


698) Which type of pollen grains are found in insect pollinated flowers?


699) Male gamete in angiosperm is produced by


700) Synergids are


701) Exine of pollen grain is made up of


702) The process of formation of microspores
I. From pollen mother cell through …A… formed …B…
II. Microspore are arranged in …C…
III. Microspore changes into the …D…
A to D in the above statements are


703) Viability of pollen grains depends on


704) 60% of the angiosperms shed their pollens at the


705) The inner most layer of microsporangium is


706) Male gametophyte of angiosperms is reduced to


707) Long , ribbon-like pollen grains are seen in some