Practice Test


1) Plants absorbs water by


2) Maximum water is lost to the atmosphere through transpiration by


3) ________ is the main source of water for plants.


4) Which type of water is available to the plants ?


5) A plant cell becomes turgid due to


6) Dry seeds when placed in water swell due to


7) When a cell is fully turgid, which one of the following is zero ?


8) Phenomenon of plasmolysis occurs when


9) Which of the following statements is CORRECT ?


10) The hydraulic pressure developed inside the cell on the cell wall due to endosmosis is called


11) The pressure on the plant cell walls due to the entry of water is called


12) Which of the following is/are hydrophilic substances ?


13) Hydroponics is the process of growing plants in


14) The movement of water from higher water potential to lower water potential through a semi permeable membrane is called


15) _______ acts as an activator for enzyme nitrate reductase.


16) Osmosis involves diffusion of


17) The osmotic parameter determining the flow of water from one cell to another is


18) Osmosis is the diffusion of a solution of a weaker concentration, when both are separated by semipermeable membrane. What is the error in this statements ?


19) If a plant cell is immersed in water, the water continues to enter the cell until the


20) "The cell wall is a permeable membrane" can be best deducted from the passage of water and minerals salts from


21) An example of a selectively permeable membrane is


22) Turgidity of the cell maintained by


23) Plasma membrane controls


24) DPD stands for


25) All of the following event involve osmosis except


26) The actual pressure with which water enters into the cell is called


27) Selective permeability identifies the process of


28) In plants, the semipermeable membrane allows the diffusion of


29) Molecules move inside and outside living cells by


30) The movement of solute particles from a region of higher concentration is termed as


31) A cell is plasmolyzed after being kept in a hypertonic solution. What will be present between cell wall and plasmalemma ?


32) Osmotic pressure in a vacuolated plant cell is usually


33) In hypertonic solution, the water potential of a cell


34) When a cell is fully turgid, which of the following will be zero ?


35) Osmotic pressure is responsible for the turgidity of plant cells which


36) DPD is equal to


37) Uniformly sweet taste of a cup of tea is due to


38) In pickles, spoilage is rare due to


39) A cell placed in strong salt solution will shrink because


40) Plant cells do not burst in distilled water because the cell wall is


41) The magnitude of diffusion pressure deficit in non-turgid cell is equal to


42) A plasmolyzed cell can be deplasmolyzed by placing it in


43) Due to plasmolysis, the plant cell


44) When water moves through a semipermeable membrane, then which of the following pressure develops ?


45) Ina plant cell, the shrinking of protoplasm is called


46) Wooden doors swell up and get stuck during the rainy season. This is due to the phenomenon of


47) In plants, water moves from


48) Movement of molecules of gases, liqiuds and solutes from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration is called


49) The lowest water potential in xylem is in the


50) Purple cabbage leaves do not lose their colour in cold water but do so in boiling water because


51) Plant cell kept in saline drop will


52) A red blood cell was kept in certain solution for a few minutes and it got burst. The said solution was


53) Which of the following is against concentration gradient ?


54) During absorption of water by roots, the water potential of cell sap is lower than that of


55) The movement of water from one cell of the cortex to the adjacent one in roots is due to


56) Water potential in the leaf tissue is positive (+ve) during


57) If a cell is reduced in size when placed in a solution, the solution is


58) With decrease in turgidity of a cell surrounded by water, the wall pressure will


59) What will be the nature of sugar solution if the cells of an epidermal peel of Rhoeo discolor shows plasmolysis ?


60) Plant cells submerged in distilled water will become


61) Endosmosis of water occurs when in comparison with the outer solution, the water potential of cell sap is


62) The restoration of turgidity in a plasmolyzed cell, when placed in a hypotonic solution is caused by


63) To initiate plasmolysis in plant cells, the salt solution used is


64) Diffusion pressure deficit of a fully turgid cell is equal to


65) Which one is a unit of measurement of water potential ?


66) The term water potential was proposed by


67) A thin slice of sugar beet placed in concentrated solution of NaCl would


68) Risk of spoilage is less in salted pickles due to


69) Which of the following can preserve food stuffs ?


70) The initial stage or first step of water absorption by root cells is


71) Three compartments of a cell are


72) The unique property of water is


73) If cells completely lack turgor pressure, they are said to be


74) A plasmolyzed cell can be deplasmolyzed by placing it in


75) Water potential of an actively absorbing cell is


76) Cell wall is permeable to


77) How many regions are there in a typical root ?


78) Cell wall of root hair is formed by which components ?


79) Which property of cellulose and pectic compounds help root hairs to absorb water ?


80) Plasma membrane is


81) In apoplast pathway, how does the movement of water take place ?


82) In symplast pathway, water travels through


83) Which of the following is a rapid type of absorption ?


84) Water will be absorbed by root hairs when the external medium is


85) Root hairs occurs in the zone of


86) The phenomenon of uptake of water at the expense of energy by the cell and usually against the osmotic gradient is known as


87) Absorption of water by a root is increased by


88) Water will be absorbed by root hairs when


89) In plants, maximum absorption of water takes place in the zone of


90) The active transport of substances across the plasma membrane is done with the help of


91) Many transplanted seedlings may not survive


92) The roots of land plants can absorb water


93) After heavy rainfall with poor drainage, leaves of many plants wilt due to


94) Prolonged water-logging kills plants due to


95) Rate of water absorption is slow near frrezing point because


96) Water enters root hairs due to


97) In absorption of water, the root cap has no significant role because


98) Outer layer of vacuole is called


99) Movement of water in the cortex of root from outside to inside is due to


100) For active absorption ________ is needed.


101) Attraction between water molecule is due to


102) The most widely accepted theory for ascent of sap in tree is


103) The continuation of excretion of watery liquid for sometime from the stump of a well watered plant, after cutting off the shoot slightly above the base, is due to


104) Water in plants is transported by


105) Cohesion-tension theory operates in


106) Dixon and Jolly are associated with


107) Water rises in the stem due to


108) Cohesion theory is related to


109) If cohesion-tension transpiration theory is correct, then break in water column in xylem vessels should


110) Which of the following plants is ideal to demonstrate ascent of sap ?


111) Path of water movement from soil to xylem is


112) A tree girdled upto xylem may survive for some time but ultimately dies because


113) During cohesion theory, the upward pull of water from bottom to top by cohesion molecules is due to


114) Attraction force of cell walls for water molecules is termed as


115) Ascent of sap in plants explains


116) Dixon and Jolley's theory most satisfactorily illustrates the rate of ascent of sap on the basis of


117) When the physical forces are taken into consideration to explain the ascent of sap in Dixon's theory, it includes


118) Ascent of sap refers to the movement of water from


119) Transpiration is very important for plants because it helps in


120) Which of the following is not a purpose of transpiration ?


121) Stomatal opening and closing is due to


122) The specialized epidermal cells surrounding guard cells are called


123) The ultimate cause for the movement of water against gravity in a tree is


124) Transpiration pull will be maximum under which of the following conditions ?


125) Stomata open at night and close during day time in


126) Transpiration occurs when the outer atmosphere


127) Guard cells differ from epidermal cells as they have


128) Stomatal opening is under the control of


129) Maximum transpiration takes place from


130) Stomata open during day time because the guard cells


131) Transpiration occurs from


132) In which of the following plants would metabolism be hindered if the leaves are coated with wax on their upper surface ?


133) What percentage of water absorbed by herbaceous plants is lost in transpiration ?


134) Absorption of water by root is increased with the


135) Transpiration is high in


136) Of the processes which occur in leaves, the one which may lower their temperature (cooling effect) is


137) Stomata opens when guard cells are


138) A leaf twig of mesophytic plant dipped in water would demonstrate


139) Which is not related to transpiration ?


140) Transpiration is dependent upon


141) The chlorphyllous cells which are fewer in number, unique in shape with thicker inner walls are known as


142) Water lost through transpiration is


143) The common characteristic between guard cells and mesophyll cells is


144) Root pressure is maximum when


145) Wilting appears due to excessive


146) Which of the following factors is most important in the regulation of transpiration ?


147) Transpiration is least in


148) Guard cells regulate


149) Which does not cause stomatal opening ?


150) A twig kept in water having some salt remains fresh for longer period due to


151) Stomata generally operate in response to


152) Stomata open in daytime due to


153) Epidermal cells containing chloroplasts are


154) Each stoma is surrounded by


155) Main function of lenticle is


156) In which of the following groups is stomata absent ?


157) "Transpiration is a necessary evil", this sentence was given by


158) In plants, the process of transpiration helps in


159) Stomata closes due to __________ in guard cells.


160) Last step in stomatal transpiration is


161) Which of the following is not possible in plants without transpiration ?


162) The rate of transpiration is highest in the


163) __________ is the chief constituent of protoplasm.


164) Water acts as a ____________ in cell.


165) Which property of water makes it a temperature stabilizer ?


166) The direction of movement of food in pholem is


167) Translocation of food takes place through


168) Which one of following structures between two adjacent cells is acting as an effective transport pathway ?


169) Carbohydrates are stored in plants in the form of


170) In vascular tissue which is the main conducting element ?


171) how many elements are essential elements ?


172) Generally, chemical analysis of plant shows the presence of _________ different elements.


173) Which of the following is not a micronutrient ?


174) Which of the following is a macronutrient ?


175) Plants require sulphur for


176) Non -mineral elements are


177) Growth of plants in soil less aqueous medium is known as


178) Macronutrients are the nutrients required in


179) Which pigment is essential for photosynthesis ?


180) Deficiency of calcium causes


181) In passive absorption, by which process does movement of mineral ions take place ?


182) Respiratory inhibitor _________ the rate of mineral absorption.


183) Which mineral deficiency causes stunted growth ?


184) If oxygen content in the medium is less, then the rate of mineral absorption


185) Minerals are absorbed in the form of


186) Calcium is present in plants in the form of


187) By which two methods does absorption of mineral ion takes place ?


188) In active absorption which energy is required ?


189) Calcium helps to


190) Cell wall becomes __________ due to the lack of calcium.


191) Whiptail disease in cauliflower occurs due to the deficiency of


192) Which is produced during water stress that brings stomatal closure ?


193) Which is the most important factor in regulation of transpiration ?


194) Stomata open or close due to the ion


195) Which of the following do not show transpiration ?


196) Stomata opens due to


197) How many elements are universally present in plants ?


198) _________ is constituent of all amino acids.


199) Which coenzymes are required in photosynthesis ?


200) phosphorus is absorbed from the soil in the form of


201) Which mineral is involved in the transfer of electron to PSII during non-cyclic photophosphorylation ?


202) Dry wooden pieces, if driven into a small crack in a rock and then soaked, can develops enough pressure to split the rock. Such a pressure is developed due to


203) When beet root cylinders are washed and placed in cold water, anthocyanin does not come out. This indicates that plasma membrane most likely is


204) If a cell 'A' having osmotic pressure (OP) 10 atm and turgor pressure (TP) 5 atm is separated from a cell B by a semipermeable membrane which has OP of 15 atm and TP of 12 atm, then the flow of water would be


205) If cell 'A' with OP=5 and TP = 4 is surrounded by the cells with OP = 3 and TP = 1, what will be the direction of water movement ?


206) An innovative Professor who wanted to give a live demonstration of a physiological process, filled a glass bottle with previously moistened mustard seeds and water. He screw-capped the bottle and kept in away in a corner and resumed his lecture.
Towards the end of his lecture, there was sudden explosion with glass pieces of the bottle thrown around. Which of the following phenomena did the Professor want to demonstrate ?


207) When a bottle of perfume is placed at one corner of a room and the lid is opened, the scent spreads all over the room after some time. This happens by the process of


208) A higher plant cell impregnated with cutin and suberin is palced in water. What would happen after 15 minutes ?


209) What will be the direction of net osmotic movement of water if a solution 'A' enclosed in a semipermeable membrane having an osmotic potential of 30 bars and turgor pressure of 5 bars is submerged in a solution B with an osmotic potential of 10 bars and 0 turgor pressure ?


210) If a cell A with DPD 4 bars is connected to cells B, C, D whose OP and TP are 4 and 4, 10 and 5 and 9 and 3 bars respectively, the flow of water will be


211) The conditions under which transpiration would be most rapid are


212) Transport of food materials in higher plants takes place through


213) Water potential can be determined by


214) What are the aquaporins in facilitated diffusion process?


215) When sugars enter sieve tubes, water flows by osmosis, resulting in


216) The evaporative loss of water from the exposed part of plant is called


217) Which one of the following is not related to guttation?


218) Whose water potential is less than water potential of root hair during the water absorption by
root hair?


219) A thin film of water is held by the soil particles under the influence of internal attractive force. It
is called


220) Study the following statement and choose the correct option(s) from the codes from below
I. Root pressure provides a light push in the overall process of water transport
II. Root pressure causes the flow of water faster through xylem than it can be lost by transportation
III. In symplast pathway, water move exclusively through the cell wall and intercellular spaces
IV. Guttation is a cause of transpiration pull
V. Most plants fulfill their water requirement by transpiration pull


221) What is required for the transport of substances through a membrane from a region of lower
concentration to higher concentration?


222) Which of the following statement is correct?


223) In a plant organ, which is covered by periderm and in which the stomata are absent, some
gaseous exchange still takes place through


224) Which one of the following is the reason for higher rate of transpiration in Sorghum as compared
to maize?


225) If turgidity of a cell surrounded by water increases, the wall pressure will


226) In plants; which of the following are/is translocated through phloem?


227) Root pressure is due to


228) Choose correct statements regarding the flow of sap in xylem?
I. Flow is driven by higher concentration of sugar in the vessel elements
II. Flow from root to twigs and leaves would be reduced if leaves are removed
III. In the morning, sap begins to flow first in the twig then in trunk
IV. Rapid flow of water put tissues under pressure much more than atmospheric pressure


229) Stomatal opening is regulated by


230) The direction of movement in phloem is …A… and that of xylem is …B… . Choose the correct pair of options


231) Which of the following theories for ascent of sap was proposed by an eminent Indian scientist J C Bose?


232) The potential energy of water is referred as


233) If two solutions have the same osmoregularity, they are said to be


234) Plant obtain carbon and most of their oxygen from


235) When plant cell is kept in saline drip, cell


236) Carrier protein, which allows the diffusion of two type of molecules in the same direction is


237) Hydroponics is the method of


238) Imbibition is always accompanied by swelling or increase in the volume of imbibint However, the increase
in the volume of the imbibant is


239) Which of the following is responsible for the transport of water and minerals from roots to stems, leaves,
flowers and fruits in rooted plants?


240) Loss of liquid water by guttation occurs through


241) The process by which water is absorbed by solids like colloid causing them to increase in volume,
is called


242) How will you distinguish between the method of transport between xylem and phloem?


243) Which one of the following is not an antitranspirant?


244) Statoliths are involved in


245) In plasmolysed cell, the space between nucleus and plasma membrane is occupied by


246) The sugarcane plant has


247) Water potential and osmotic potential of pure water is


248) When pea seeds and wheat seeds are put in water, which of the two will imbibe more water?


249) Nyctinasty and seismonasty in plants like bean and touch me not are produced due to


250) Following statements are related with the diffusion of coloured molecules across a membrane. Select the
correct statement, which shows the fastest rate of diffusion?


251) Choose the false statement


252) Sunken stomata is found in the leaves of


253) Who proposed cohesion theory of water movement in plants?


254) Read the following statements and choose the correct option given below
I. Major account of transpiration takes places through surface/margin of leaves
II. A little amount of water is lost through stem, this is reffered to cauline transpiration
III. Transpiration is comparatively a slow process then evaporation
IV. Transpiration driven ascent of sap does not depend on cohesion, adhesion and surface tension
properties of water


255) Direction of translocation of organic food or solutes, is


256) The water available to plants for absorption is


257) Which of the following theory gives the latest explanation for the closure of stomata?


258) Why all the minerals present in soil can not be passively absorbed by roots?


259) Which one is not the job of zone of cell differentiation in roots?


260) which one is against the theory of ascent of sap given by Dixon and Jolly?


261) Attraction of water molecules to polar surfaces is known as


262) The epidermal trichomes help in


263) In land plants, the guard cells differ from other epidermal cells in having


264) Arrange the events of opening stomata in correct sequence and choose the correct option accordingly
I. Lowering of osmotic potential of guard cells
II. Decline in guard cell solute
III. Rise of potassium ion level in guard cells
IV. Guard cells absorb water from neighbouring epidermal cells
V. Guard cells become flaccid
VI. Guard cells swells and make a pore between them


265) Water potential increases due to


266) Why seeds imbibe and swell after keeping in water?


267) If you are given a task to analyse phloem sap chemical, which of the following will be present in least
concentration?


268) Some elements like calcium are not remobilised because they are


269) Movement of molecules in three forms of matter, from a region higher concentration to a region of lower
concentration can be termed as


270) In plants, water supply is due to


271) Which part of root absorbs both water and minerals?


272) Diffusion pressure deficit is also called


273) Diffusion, a process occur(s) along the concentration gradient is actively involved in


274) Which of the following mechanism can explain the transport of sucrose from source to sink?


275) Which of the following cells are not related to the structure of stomata?


276) Water lost in Guttation is


277) The approximate length of root hair zone in plants


278) When the conditions are dry, a grass leaf curls inward to minimize water loss due to the pressure
of


279) Transpiration is measured by


280) A cell swells up when kept in


281) Which of the following statements are true/false?
I. The positive hydrostatic pressure is called turgor pressure.
II. Wall pressure exerts to prevent the increase of protoplasm size.
III. Diffusion is more rapid in liquids than in gases.
IV. Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane is called imbibition.
V. Osmosis is movement of substance, which takes place along a diffusion gradient.


282) When a plasmolyzed cell is placed in a hypotonic solution then water will move inside the cell.
Which force causes this?


283) Which one of the following denotes the water potential of the mesophyll cell in wilted condition?


284) Sugar stored in roots may be mobilised to become a source of food in the


285) Which of the following is the unit of measurement of water potential?


286) Which type of water is used by the plants?


287) Water in the vessel of xylem in tall plant is


288) A leaf peeling of Tradescantia is kept in a medium having 10% NaCl. After a few minutes, if we
observe the leaf peel under the microscope, we are likely to see


289) Stomata which can open at night, are present in


290) This hormone affects opening and closing of stomata.


291) Transport of gases, hormones, photosynthetase and organic solutes in plants is


292) Fensom and Jones suggested, which of the following method for translocation of solute?


293) Which statement can be shared by facilitated diffusion and active transport?


294) Which of the following has maximum water potential?


295) In plants, long distance transport of organic and inorganic substances occur through


296) Xylem sap is made up of


297) Passive absorption of mineral salts is not dependent on


298) The pressure exerted by the protoplast due to the entry of water against the rigid cell wall is termed as


299) Some statements are given regarding the active transport in plants. Choose the incorrect statement


300) Root endodermis has the ability to actively transport ions …A… because of …B… .
Choose the correct pair


301) The shape of guard cells in stomata in sugarcane plant is


302) Plants develops force for upward conduction of water against gravity is derived from


303) How translocation of organic material is explained in plants?


304) Two cell (A and B) have osmotic potential and pressure potential – 18 bars and 8 bars, and – 14 bars and 2
bars respectively. What will be the direction of water flow?


305) Which one of the following acts as a barrier in a apoplastic pathway?


306) Go through the following pairs and choose the correct pairs from the option given below
I. Nerium Sunken lower epidermis of leaves to
stomata reduces loss of water
II. Calotropis Non-succulent Root cells with thickened
cell walls
III. Peperomia Leaf succulent Leaf epidermal cell, store
water
IV. Ammophila Dicot Curl their leaves to minimise
loss of water
V. Tribulus Ephemeral Water is stored in stem


307) Which pathway applies least resistance to the movement of water?


308) During flowering, fruit ripening and development period in plants, which part of the plant act as source?


309) Plants growing on hills are likely to show


310) The transport of ions up the stem to all parts is through


311) How much of absorbed water is lost during transpiration in a plant?


312) Which one of the following is part of symplast?


313) The real forces responsible for the movement of water from one cell to another cell is mainly


314) Water occur freely in previous rocks and deep in soil above the impermeable strata is


315) A twig kept in water having some salt remains fresh for longer period due to


316) If stem of plant is cut under a state of tension in xylem sap, what will be the result?


317) One factor responsible for water rise up to 100 m of tall plant, is


318) Read carefully the following statements and choose the right answer from the options given below
I. Diffusion is a slow process and it do not depends upon the living system
II. Usually process of diffusion does not need energy
III. Diffusion can occur from one part of a cell to another part of the same cell or from one cell to another
and from one tissue to another tissue
IV. Diffusion is a rapid process over short distance, but extremely slow over long distances


319) Tension, one of the important factor in the movement of xylem sap in a tree is a result of


320) What is the approximate dry weight contained by majority of herbaceous plants


321) Root hair absorb water from the soil on account of


322) The space between the plasma membrane and the cell wall of a plasmolyzed cell surrounded by a
hypertonic solution is occupied by the


323) The first process by which water enters into the seed coat when a seed is placed in suitable
environment for germination is


324) In tall plants, because of which factor, continuous water column extends upward?


325) What will happen, if a large amount of water enters in a plant cell?


326) Identify true and false statements and select the correct option from the codes given below
I. As suction pressure increases, water absorption also increases which in turn increases the absorption of
ions
II. Absorption of ions is affected by transpiration pull
III. Large amount of charged particles are absorbed along with absorption of water
IV. Pressure flow hypothesis depends entirely on the existence of mechanism for loading sugars into
phloem at the source region and unloading it at the sink
V. Contents in the sieve tube move undirectionally


327) Opening of stomata is not affected by


328) Osmosis involves flow of


329) Cohesion force, a feature of cohesion theory is also called


330) A plant cell becomes turgid due to


331) Which of the following experiments is called physiological demonstration of osmosis?


332) Which of the following statements is/are true?
I.The apoplastic movement of water occurs exclusively through the cell wall without crossing any
membranes.
II.Solutes present in a cell (or in any solution) increase the free energy of water or water
potential.
III.The symplastic movement occurs from cell to cell through the plasmodesmata.
IV.Membrane permeability depends on the membrane composition, as well the chemical nature
of the solute.


333) Which of the following maintains the shape of cell?


334) Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer
I. Carrier proteins are needed by both facilitated diffusion and active transport and are sensitive to
inhibitors that react with protein side chain
II. Different types of proteins present in the membrane plays a major role in both active as well as passive
transport
III. The carrier proteins needed by facilitated and active transport are specific
IV. There is no need of energy to pump molecule against a concentration in active transport
V. Transport rate reaches to saturation point, when all the active proteins are used


335) Root hair absorbs water from soil through


336) Which type of soil has least water retaining capacity?


337) Phloem sap is mainly ….. and ….. . Choose the correct pair of options?


338) Passive absorption of water by the root system is the result of


339) The rate if diffusion is dependent upon the permeability of the medium, it however


340) If flowers are cut and dipped in dilute NaCl solution, then


341) Munch hypothesis is based on


342) Transpiration facilitates


343) Which of the following is not correct regarding carrier molecules, involved in facilitated diffusion?


344) Which of the following is used as an antitranspirant?


345) Study the following statements
I. Most minerals must enter the roots by active absorption into cytoplasm and epidermal cells
II. Ions are absorbed by both passive and active transport
III. Active absorption does not require energy
IV. Active uptake of ions is responsible for osmosis
Choose the correct option in reference to the statements given above


346) Arrange the following events of mass flow of organic material in sequence
I. Sugars are transported from cell to cell in the leaf
II. Food is synthesised in form of glucose by leaf cells
III. Movement of water takes place into sieve tube elements
IV. Downward movement of sugar occurs in the stem
V. Solutes are actively transported into the sieve elements


347) Which of the following lacks stomata?


348) Guard cells control


349) Wilting occurs when


350) Which among the following represents the correct relationship for a plasmolysed cell?


351) Water in the soil available to plants is


352) The magnitude of root pressure ranges between


353) Read the following statements regarding porins and select the correct option given below
I. Porins are transport proteins
II. Channel proteins are a type of transport protein, which are usually gated
III. Carrier protein binds the particular solute to be transported
IV. Particular solute is delivered to the other side of the membrane by carrier proteins


354) RBC and a plant cell (with thick cell wall) are placed in distilled water. The solute concentration is
the same in both the cells. What changes would be observed in them?


355) When a cell is plasmolysed, it becomes


356) Water is lost in a liquid state in some plants through hydathodes. These hydathodes


357) Cell-A has osmotic potential of -18 bars and pressure potential of 8 bars, whereas, cell-B has
osmotic potential of -14 bars and pressure potential 2 bars. The direction of flow of water will be


358) Which type of transpiration continues throughout day and night?


359) The first process responsible for the entry of water into a seed, when it is placed in a suitable environment
for germination is


360) Read the given statements regarding the different stages of plasmolysis and choose the correct option
I. First stage of plasmolysis, when osmotic concentration of cell sap is just equivalent to that of external
solution
II. Protoplast withdraws itself from corners of the cell wall
III. Protoplast gets detached from the cell wall and attains a spherical shape


361) Water composition in a water-melon is approximately


362) The membrane, which allows passage of certain substances more readily than others is termed as


363) Which one of the following is not a part of symplast?


364) What is mandatory in the process of facilitated diffusion?


365) A special type, which occurs when water is absorbed by solids causing them to increase in volume is called


366) Which of the following does not affect water potential of water?


367) Study the following pairs.
VI. Peperomia Leaf succulent Leaf epidermal cells store water.
VII.Calotropsis Non-succulent Root cells with thickend cell walls.
VIII. Tribulus Ephermeral Stem stores water.
IX. Ammophila Dicot plant Rolling in of leaves to check water loss
Identify the correct pair of answer.


368) Consider the following statements and choose the correct option from codes given below
I. Loading of phloem is related to increase of sugar in phloem
II. Active loading of sugar in sieve tube of phloem is driven by proton pump
III. Pressure may be positive or negative in sieve tube cells
IV. Water and solutes move through the sieve tube against pressure gradient
V. Cytoplasmic strand passes through the holes in sieve plates and form continuous filaments


369) Path of water movement from soil to xylem is


370) The stomata in CAM plants open during


371) What will be the affect of accumulation of potassium ions in guard cells?


372) Through which process, starch of the guard cell is converted into PEP ions?


373) Which one of the following does not help in molecular transport?


374) Ascent of sap is


375) Passage cells are thin-walled cells found in


376) The term apoplast signifies


377) Select the correct option in reference with the statements given below
I. Facilitated diffusion cannot cause net transport
II. Transport rate in case of facilitated diffusion never reaches to a maximum level
III. Facilitated transport is selective to inhibition proteins
IV. Concentration gradient is not required in case of facilitated diffusion


378) Osmotic pressure of a solution is


379) Potometer works on the principle of


380) In which of the following path, flow of water occurs from cell to cell through their protoplasm?


381) Transport of minerals through xylem is


382) Mechanism of opening and closing of stomata is controlled by


383) Stomata are also called as


384) Hydathodes are also called


385) What happens when concentration of solutes decreases in guard cells?


386) During water absorption from the soil, the water potential of the root cell is…..than the soil


387) Water potential gradient can be best defined as


388) Humidity in atmosphere decreases rate of


389) Guard cells help in


390) Both minerals and water are absorbed by


391) Fensom and Jones suggested which of the following method for translocation of solute?


392) Mycorrhiza, a mutal relationship between fungus and a root of gymnosperm helps in
I. absorption of water
II. mineral absorption
III. translocation
IV. gaseous exchange
Choose the correct option


393) Which of the following pair is selective and specific mode of transport?


394) Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer from the options given below
I. A dry live seed still contains water
II. A mature maize plant absorbs about 3 L water per day
III. A mustard plant take up water equal to its weight in about five hours
IV. Water is not considered as the limiting factor for plant growth and productivity


395) Which one is true about guttation?


396) What are the location of casparian strips-which interrupts the movement of water inside a root?


397) Select the correct statement from the following


398) Which one of the following doesn’t help in molecule transport?


399) What type of material do not diffuse or find it difficult to pass through the membranes?


400) When the concentration of the soil solutes is low, the absorption of water


401) If sugars are actively moving into a cell, what will happens to the turgor pressure of the cell?


402) Read the following statements and choose the correct answer from the options given below


403) Movement among cells against concentration gradient is called


404) Transport proteins of endodermal cells are …A… where a plant adjusts the …B… and …C… of solutes that
reaches the …D…
Choose the correct combination of A-D from the given options


405) Select the correct events leading to the opening of the stomata.
I.Decline in guard cell solutes.
II.Lowering of osmotic potential of guard cells.
III.Rise in potassium levels in guard cells.
IV.Movement of water from neighbouring cells into guard cells.
V.Guard cells becoming flaccid.


406) Choose, true and false statements from the following and select the correct option from the set (a-d) given
below
I. Diffusion is an important process of transport in plants since it is the only means for gaseous movement
within the plant body
II. In active transport, pumps are proteins that use energy to carry substance across the cell membrane
against concentration gradient
III. In facilitated diffusion, special proteins helps hydrophilic substances to be transported across the
membrane
IV. In diffusion, molecules move against concentration gradient in a random manner
V. Facilitated diffusion is faster than active transport


407) Which one of the following is the most accepted theory of ascent of sap?


408) At the time of seed germination, when water is absorbed by the seed due to imbibition, the seed coat
breaks as it swells to a lesser degree than the kernel because


409) Unloading of minerals occur at


410) Why the tropical deciduous forest trees shed their leaves?


411) Which of the following affects the rate of diffusion?


412) A student has taken a twig from a plant. She/he observe a droplet of fluid exuding from the cut surface of
twing. What is this fluid?


413) The translocation of organic solutes in sieve tube members is supported by


414) Active transport


415) Some cells are placed in a solution of glucose to measure the rate of diffusion. As the concentration of
glucose solution is being increased, the diffusion rate increases simultaneously. However, when the
concentration of glucose solution reaches above 10 m, the diffusion rate no longer increases
Which statement best define the mechanism of glucoses transport in the cells?


416) Transport of different types of solute substances takes place by


417) Phloem sap is made up of


418) Which of the following affect the transport of molecules when carrier mediated facilitated diffusion is
involved?


419) Who coined the term diffusion pressure deficit?


420) Which one of the following does not play a major role in upward movement of xylem sap in tall trees?


421) Why the rate of diffusion of a substance along the concentration gradient does not increase continuously,
while the concentration difference of the molecules across the membrane increases?


422) Which of them is/are correct regarding pressure flow model for translocation?
I. Sugar is transported through phloem as glucose
II. Movement of sugar is carried out through sieve tube near the source region
III. Concentration of sugar is always highest near the sink region
IV. Water from the adjacent xylem moves into phloem by osmosis


423) After heavy rain fall with poor drainage, laves of many plants wilt due to


424) Graham’s law is correlated with


425) Who proposed the ‘Cohesion Theory’ of ascent of sap?


426) How would you differentiate between apoplast and symplast?


427) Water potential of a solution is denoted by


428) Which one of the following statements is wrong?


429) Cell wall present in water conducting tissues, represented by swollen nodules, is known as


430) Transport of organic solutes is supposed to take place by pressure flow hypothesis through phloem tissue
from source to sink. Choose the false statement about vascular tissue transport


431) How much percentage of absorbed water in plants is used in the process of photosynthesis?


432) The force responsible for upward conduction of water against gravity comes from


433) Which of the following is not a purpose of transpiration?


434) A soil sample is found to have 25% of its volume occupied by soil water. Of this, 10% is
hygroscopic water and the remaining is capillary water. What is the field capacity of this soil?


435) Why is active transport considered important?


436) In mycorrhizal association, which one of the following increases the surface area available for absorption
of water and minerals by roots?


437) Uphill transport is a type of


438) Ascent of sap in plants was demonstrated by


439) The value of pure water potential is


440) Loss of water in liquid phase (in form of droplets) from the margin of leaves in many herbaceous plants is


441) The relationship among different types of soil water can be summed up of the following equation:


442) A cell dipped in 0.5 M sucrose solution has no effect but when the same will be dipped in 0.5 M
NaCl solution, the cell will


443) Transpiration is manifestation of


444) Two cells A and B are contiguous. Cell-A has osmotic pressure-10 atm, turgor pressure-7 atm and
diffusion pressure deficit-3 atm. Cell-B has osmotic pressure-8 atm, turgor pressure-3 atm and
diffusion pressure deficit 5 atm. The result will be


445) Plasmolysis is the result of


446) Stomata open and close due to


447) Which one is incorrect statement?


448) Which of the following is appropriate for mass-flow hypothesis?


449) The antitranspirant is


450) The rupture and fractionation do not usually occur in the water column in vessles/tracheids
during the ascent of sap because of


451) The rate of diffusion of any substance is not affected by


452) Cohension and adhension theory, is otherwise called


453) Stomata open due to accumulation of


454) Which of the following in guard cell is responsible for opening of stomata?


455) Which of the following is the most accepted theory for movement of water through plants?


456) The force responsible for the water movement against gravity even up to a 130 m of tall free comes from


457) A leaf with more stomata on lower surface belongs to


458) When a plant cell is placed in pure water, it


459) The loosely arranged non-chlorophyllous parenchyma cells present in lenticels, are called


460) Select the wrong statement regarding membrane channels


461) A group of students are studying transport of certain type of molecules in a cells and observe that
transport slows down when the cells are treated with poison, a chemical, which inhibit energy production.
Under normal conditions, the molecules are being studied and it is estimated that molecules probably
transported by


462) In symplast pathway of water movement, water passes from cell to cell, whose cytoplasm are connected through


463) Select the correct statement


464) Which ion helps in opening and closing of stomata?


465) Which theory is considered best to explain ascent of sap


466) Which of the following get accumulated in the vacuoles of guard cells during stomatal opening?


467) Transpiration is the manifestation of


468) Which among the following has highest water potential?


469) Stomatal opening is affected by


470) Stoma opens, when


471) If solute particles are added in pure water, its diffusion pressure will be


472) A red blood cell (RBC) was kept in a certain solution for few minutes and it got burst. The said
solution was


473) The rate of transpiration will be very less in a situation where


474) The factor, most important in regulating transpiration, is


475) Wooden doors and logs swells up, and get stuck up during rainy season due to


476) If water enters in a cell, the pressure exerted by its swollen protoplast is


477) What is the most efficient region of water absorption in roots?


478) Regarding root pressure, which one is not correct?


479) Choose the correct statements regarding guttation and pick the correct option from the codes given below
I. It occurs through specialised pore called hydathode
II. Hydathodes can be located on the margin and tips of leaves
III. It occurs in plants growing under condition of low soil moisture and high humidity
IV. It occurs in herbaceous plants when root pressure is low and transpiration is high


480) What is the value of DPD?


481) The transport of organic and inorganic substances in plants over longer distance occurs through vascular
tissue by the means of


482) Choose the correct statement regarding casparian strips
I. It surrounds pericycle
II. It is made up of legnosuberin
III. It limits the pathway available to water solutes, forcing them to enter the symplast


483) Translocation of organic materials in plants is explained


484) Choose the correct option given below


485) Movement of water through cell wall, is


486) Adhesion is caused by


487) Short distance transport of substances like nutrients, water etc., in plants occur through


488) With the increase in temperature, the process of imbibition


489) In which form, does the food transported in plants?


490) Identify the correct relationship with reference to water potential of a plant cell.


491) The correct relationship among different type of soil water is


492) In a fully turgid cell


493) In which of the following plants, there will be no transpiration?


494) The value of osmotic potential of an electrolyte is always


495) Carrier protein, which allows the movement of molecules in opposite direction is


496) In osmosis, there is movement of


497) If the osmotic pressure of cytoplasm in a cell is balanced by external solution, the solution must be


498) In thistle funnel experiment, what will occur if sugar solution is added to beaker, after the process
of osmosis stops?


499) Water rises in the stem due to


500) Term osmosis is specifically used to refer


501) Guttation is mainly due to


502) Read the following statement carefully and choose the right answer from the codes given below
I. PMA and silicon oil of low viscosity are considered as antitranspirant
II. BAP, NAA and cobalt chloride is also used as antitranspirant
III. Abscisic acid affects the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata
IV. Starch of guard cells is converted into PEP ions by the process of hydrolysis
V. Potometer works on the principle of potential difference between the tip of the tube and that of plant
VI. Transpiration rate is directly proportional to the relative humidity


503) When pea seeds and wheat grains are soaked in water, pea seeds showed more swelling than the
wheat. The reason is


504) The phytohormone, which increases the concentration of potassium in guard cells is also
responsible for the induction of


505) Choose the correct option in accordance to the statements given above
I. The positive hydrostatic pressure is also called as turgor pressure
II. Wall pressure is exerted to prevent any increase in protoplasm size
III. Osmosis is the movement of substances, which takes place along a diffusion gradient
IV. Plasmolysis is the result of reverse osmosis


506) Water channels are possessed by a membrane to facilitate the movement of hydrophilic substances. These
channels are made up of


507) Who described mass flow hypothesis?


508) Water can be absorbed from a hypertonic external solution by


509) In a fully turgid cell, …… is zero.


510) Why the transport of organic food through phloem is bidirectional?


511) Cohesion theory of water movement in plants was put forth by


512) Choose the correct statements regarding the uptake of mineral nutrients and food in plants


513) According to the transpiration-cohesion theory, the upward pull of water is transmitted to other water
molecules by cohesion, which is caused by


514) In plants, continuous water supply is due to


515) Statement 1: Living plant cells do not bursts on keeping in water, while an animal cell like RBCs bursts
when kept in water
Statement 2: The rigidity of cell wall, plant cell maintain its shape and do not burst


516) Statement 1: The optimum amount of water a soil can retained is known as its field capacity
Statement 2: Water in excess of field capacity percolate, to water table due to gravitation


517) Statement 1: Cohesion force is also called as tensile strength
Statement 2: Attraction of water molecule to polar surface or hydrophilic wall of the xylem tube causes
adhesion force


518) Statement 1: In phloem, sugars are translocated in non reducing form
Statement 2: Non-reducing sugars are most reactive sugars


519) Statement 1: Unidirectional flow of water, mineral and nitrogen occurs through xylem
Statement 2: Direction of flow of organic and inorganic substances is unidirectional and occurs
through phloem


520) Statement 1: During rainy season woodens doors get stuck and become difficult to open and shut
property
Statement 2: Due to the process of imbibition, volume of wooden items increases, when they come in contact of water


521) Statement 1: When dried seeds of pea are placed in a tin and water added up to their upper
level and than a lid is put tightly over it. Within an hour, the lid will be blown off.
Statement 2: Due to rapid cell division in pea seeds.


522) Statement 1: Pure water is obtained by reverse osmosis from a solution through differentially
permeable membrane
Statement 2: Water obtained from reverse osmosis is devoid of impurities and is extra pure


523) Statement 1: In the ringing experiment, a narrow continuous band of tissues external to the xylem is
removed
Statement 2: Ringing experiment proves the transport of solutes by phloem


524) Statement 1: Transpiration facilitate supply of water of photosynthesis, maintains shape and structure
of plant and also transports minerals from the soil to other parts of the plant
Statement 2: Process of transpiration helps in translocation of inorganic and sugar molecules from the
source to sink


525) Statement 1: No energy expenditure takes place in the process of diffusion
Statement 2: Diffusion occurs along the concentration gradient, i.e, from a region of higher
concentration to a region of lower concentration


526) Read the following statement and choose the correct one from the codes given below
I. The apoplastic movement of water takes place exclusively through intercellular spaces and cell wall
without crossing any membrane
II. Symplastic movement occurs from cell to cell through plasmodesmata, i.e., adjacent cells are connected
through plasmodesmata
III. Permeability of a membrane depends on its composition and chemical nature of the solute
IV. Solutes present in a cell increases the free energy of the water or water potential


527) Which of the following transport induces conformational changes in proteins?


528) Choose true and false statements from the following
I. Mycorrhizal association between fungus and root of plant (Pinus) is often obligate
II. Pinus and orchid seeds can germinate and grow into plant in absence of mycorrhizal association
III. Absorption of water along with mineral solute by root hairs is purely a process of diffusion
IV. In apoplast pathway, movement of water takes place through cell wall and intercellular spaces
V. Fungal hyphae provide sugar and organic internal to root
Choose the correct option


529) Sunken stomata are usually found in the leaves of


530) Examples of bulk flow by a positive hydrostatic pressure gradient and a negative hydrostatic pressure
gradient are


531) If two types of seeds, like pea and maize are kept in water at the same time. Which among the two will
imbibe more water?


532) Osmotic pressure is highest in which of the following plant type?


533) The plants, which are able to send their roots up to the fringe of water table are called