Practice Test


Q1) Excretion refers to: Show Answer


Q2) Kidney of amniotes belongs to the following type: Show Answer


Q3) About how many nephorns are present in each kidney of human? Show Answer


Q4) Vertebrate kidney and contractile vacuole of protozoan resemble each other in: Show Answer


Q5) The glomerulus is responsible for: Show Answer


Q6) A fish excretes nitrogen in the form of: Show Answer


Q7) Capillaries of glomeruli are: Show Answer


Q8) The kind of epithelial cells that form a lining of the neck of tubules is: Show Answer


Q9) What kind of epithelial cells form the lining of the body of renal tubules? Show Answer


Q10) Separation of amion acid into amino group and carboxylic group is called: Show Answer


Q11) Uriniferous tubules are concerned with the formation of: Show Answer


Q12) Uriniferous tubules are found: Show Answer


Q13) The maximum amount of urea is present in: Show Answer


Q14) Condition which result in failure of kidney is known as: Show Answer


Q15) The function of kidney is to: Show Answer


Q16) Materials from tubules enter cells against a gradient because of: Show Answer


Q17) Urine is formed by the process of: Show Answer


Q18) In the glomerular filtrate all the constituents of blood except proteins and cells are present. The process involved is: Show Answer


Q19) The osmoregulatory tissue in all animals is: Show Answer


Q20) The vitamin that is excreted by urine in higher vertebrates is: Show Answer


Q21) The pressure exerted by the glomerular afferent arteriole is: Show Answer


Q22) The difference between glomerular filtrate and blood plasma is of: Show Answer


Q23) The end products fat metabolism are excreted by: Show Answer


Q24) A person has taken a large amount of meal which contains high muscle protein. His urine will eliminate more amount of: Show Answer


Q25) Which one of the following increases glomerular pressure? Show Answer


Q26) The urinay bladder of frog performs the function of: Show Answer


Q27) When the kidney is no longer held in place securely the stage is called the: Show Answer


Q28) In which of the following the gut expels out excretory waste along with faeces? Show Answer


Q29) The glomerulus is a network of: Show Answer


Q30) What does glomerular filtrate consist of? Show Answer


Q31) In Bright disease (Nephritis): Show Answer


Q32) The pack rat, a rodent, often goes for long period without drinking, eats leaves of juicy plants and moves about in the open only in the evening and at night. From these habits, you can guess that it lives in: Show Answer


Q33) The main nitrogenous waste substance excreted by the pack rat will probably be: Show Answer


Q34) An advantage of excreting nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid is that: Show Answer


Q35) If excess water passes out from the tissues without being restored by the kidneys, the cells would: Show Answer


Q36) The main excretory structure in houseflies is the: Show Answer


Q37) Salmon have gills that are more permeable to water than to salts. Salmon hatch in fresh water streams, and then migrate to the ocean. Once they reach the ocean you would expect the rate of uptake of water into their body through the gills to: Show Answer


Q38) Urine leaves the kidney via: Show Answer


Q39) The loop if Henle is most highly developed in: Show Answer


Q40) All the following tests are used to know the abnormality in the kidney except: Show Answer


Q41) In birds, the nitrogenous wastes are conveyed to the exterior directly through the: Show Answer


Q42) Urea is formed by the combination of ammonia with and in: Show Answer


Q43) The cavity of the kidney which leads into ureter is called: Show Answer


Q44) In kidney the high capillary bed is found: Show Answer


Q45) Angiotensin stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone which influences in the blood the level of: Show Answer


Q46) Reabsorption is controlled partly by ADH which is secreted by: Show Answer


Q47) The amino acids are excreted as such from the body in any one of the followings: Show Answer


Q48) Ammonia is the end product of: Show Answer


Q49) Ornithine cycle is concerned with the production of: Show Answer


Q50) Which one of the following substances is completely reabsorbed from the filtrate in the renal tubule under normal condition? Show Answer


Q51) In the functional kidney which of the following process does not occur? Show Answer


Q52) The elimination of the insoluble calcium phosphate takes palce by: Show Answer


Q53) The polypeptide which plays a key role in the renal pressure system is:: Show Answer


Q54) The chief nitrogenous waste material in the urine of frog is: Show Answer


Q55) Physiologically urea is produced by the action of an enzyme: Show Answer


Q56) The system which restores impaired renal circulation is known as: Show Answer


Q57) Human kidney is differntiated into: Show Answer


Q58) Opening into the tubules of the kidney of frog from the coelom are a number of ciliated funnel-like structures called: Show Answer


Q59) The high threshold substances are: Show Answer


Q60) The process because of which marine animals make adjustments in high salt concentration is: Show Answer


Q61) Carbon dioxide is an excretory product because it is formed during: Show Answer


Q62) The disease diabetes mellitus is diagnosed by the occurrence in urine of: Show Answer


Q63) In insects, the uric acid is temporarily stored in the: Show Answer


Q64) Urinary bladder is not found in: Show Answer


Q65) Important function of perspiration is to: Show Answer


Q66) Which of the following is not an excretory activity? Show Answer


Q67) Proximal and distal convoluted tubules are parts of a: Show Answer


Q68) A person feels a fullness senstion of urine if the volume of urine increases up to: Show Answer


Q69) Which of the following are is not directly connected with cell metabolism? Show Answer


Q70) The urination becomes voluntary when the urine reaches in the: Show Answer


Q71) Green glands are organs of excretion. They are seen in: Show Answer


Q72) The cells of proximal tubule develop several microvilli to form brush border. The number of microvilli per square micron in human being is: Show Answer


Q73) The glomerular membrane has permeability about: Show Answer


Q74) The water reabsorption takes place under the ADH is called the: Show Answer


Q75) In which group the toxic substance, the benzoic acid combines with glycine to form a less toxic substance the hippuric acid? Show Answer


Q76) Bowman's capsule functions as a: Show Answer


Q77) Whenever the amount of urine decreases the stage is called? Show Answer


Q78) If a person suffering from a disease called muscular dystrophy, he will eliminate in urine great amount of: Show Answer


Q79) Ammonia in some aquatic animals is eliminated by: Show Answer


Q80) In reptiles, the uric acid is stored in: Show Answer


Q81) Animals that show hypertonic urine with provision for water reabsorption in the kidney are: Show Answer


Q82) In aquatic organism the end product of nitrogen exchange is: Show Answer


Q83) In fever too much of sugur may increase. Its elimination in urine is in the form of: Show Answer


Q84) Excretion of bile pigments in urine indicates: Show Answer


Q85) pH of human urine is: Show Answer


Q86) Which of the following is not reabsorbed from the filtrated to the blood at proximal tubule? Show Answer


Q87) Deamination occurs during the: Show Answer


Q88) Malpighian body refers to: Show Answer


Q89) Diameter of afferent arteriole entering the Bowman's capsule is: Show Answer


Q90) Which of the following is not functionally analogous with others in its group? Show Answer


Q91) All the following are related to disease of kidney except: Show Answer


Q92) Which of the following is concerned with formation of urea in rabbit? Show Answer


Q93) The glomerular filtration rate in case of a normal person is: Show Answer


Q94) The average volume of fluid filtered from the plasma into Bowman's capsule is about: Show Answer


Q95) The desire to urinate may be suppressed by voluntary control of the external urethral sphincter until the total content is: Show Answer


Q96) Negative nitrogen balance means: Show Answer


Q97) A person who is starving, that is, not having food, water and beverage will have: Show Answer


Q98) Which of the following does not produce uric acid as the main excretory product? Show Answer


Q99) Which of the following is not a constituent of normal urine? Show Answer


Q100) All the functions are performed by the kidney except: Show Answer


Q101) Which of the following tissues form the lining of Bowman's capsule? Show Answer


Q102) Urine gets concentrated in: Show Answer


Q103) The passing out of almost solid wastes along with faeces in reptiles is an indication of: Show Answer


Q104) The blood leaving the kidney is significantly lower in: Show Answer


Q105) Filtration into the kidney tubule is accomplished by means of: Show Answer


Q106) Severe dehydration causes a decrease in osmotic potential in the blood. This causes a(n) (increase/decrease) in the amount of urine produced. This change in urine production is caused primarily by: Show Answer


Q107) Which of the following best explains reabsorption in the tubules of nephrons? Show Answer


Q108) Pick up the odd one? Show Answer


Q109) Final wastes from adenine and guanine (purines) is: Show Answer


Q110) Human kidneys are: Show Answer


Q111) Human kidneys are analogous to: Show Answer


Q112) Mammals excrete urine which is: Show Answer


Q113) Rise of blood pressure decreases the secretion of ADH resulting in the increased urine output. Fall in blood pressure will: Show Answer


Q114) Henle's loop is meant for absorption of: Show Answer


Q115) Many fresh water vertebrates excrete: Show Answer


Q116) ADH is also known as: Show Answer


Q117) Glomerular filtrate dose not contain: Show Answer


Q118) Presence of blood in urine due to lesion of kidney or urinay tract is called: Show Answer


Q119) The specific gravity of urine is: Show Answer


Q120) Ammonia is chief nitrogenous waster in: Show Answer


Q121) Blood urea level is an index of function: Show Answer


Q122) Most of the terrestrial insects get rid of the bulk of their nitrogenous wastes as: Show Answer


Q123) The artificial kidney is based upon the mechanism of: Show Answer


Q124) Which of the following is diluting segment of uriniferous tubule? Show Answer


Q125) A marine bony fish must continuously: Show Answer


Q126) In the flame cell system of a planarian, materials are drained directly from the: Show Answer


Q127) The flame cell system function mostly to: Show Answer


Q128) The kidney regulates acid-base balance by each of the following mechanisms except: Show Answer


Q129) In insects, Malpighian tubules drain materials directly from the: Show Answer


Q130) A Malpighian tubule empties urine into the: Show Answer


Q131) A nephridium of an earthworm drains materials directly from the: Show Answer


Q132) Which of the following statements about the kidney is correct? Show Answer


Q133) A normal room temperature most body heat loss is by: Show Answer


Q134) The force that moves fluid from the blood through the walls of a capillary and Bowman's capsule of a nephron is: Show Answer


Q135) When the temperature of the surroundings is greater than the body temperature, heat loss is possible only through which of the following? Show Answer


Q136) Osmoregulation is control over the: Show Answer


Q137) For which of the following substances would you expect the renal clearance to be the lowest, under normal conditions? Show Answer


Q138) In which of these animals, antennal gland functions as excretory organ? Show Answer


Q139) A fresh water fish must continuously: Show Answer


Q140) In the kidney: Show Answer


Q141) The kidney not only remove the water products form the blood but also play a very important role in maintaining: Show Answer


Q142) Bowman's capsule is part of: Show Answer


Q143) In which stages of ornithine cycle the enzyme arginase is used: Show Answer


Q144) The kidney of adult frog is: Show Answer


Q145) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus forms: Show Answer


Q146) Sea gull excretes excess of NaCI through: Show Answer


Q147) In human body urea is produced as an excretory product in the: Show Answer


Q148) In peritoneal dialysis, the dialysate is introduced into: Show Answer


Q149) What is impermeable for the ascending limb of loop of Henle? Show Answer


Q150) Why do we pass more urine in wet and cold season: Show Answer


Q151) The ornithine cycle removes two waste products from the blood in liver. These waste products are: Show Answer


Q152) Functionwise, just as there are nephridia in an earthworm, so are: Show Answer


Q153) Loop of Henle is meant for absorption of: Show Answer


Q154) In, the kidney of man glomerular number is: Show Answer


Q155) The excretion in Entamoeba histolytica takes place by: Show Answer


Q156) In the formation of urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide combine using three amino acids. These are: Show Answer


Q157) The functional kidney of frog tadpole is: Show Answer


Q158) Aquatic reptiles are: Show Answer


Q159) Blood which leaves liver and passes towards heart has higher concentration of: Show Answer


Q160) Characteristic of metanephric kidney is: Show Answer


Q161) In nephrons there is complete absorption of: Show Answer


Q162) In kidney, nephrostomes are functional in: Show Answer


Q163) Ammonia is converted into urea through a cycle called: Show Answer


Q164) Urine is always fluid except in: Show Answer


Q165) Urine is transported through: Show Answer


Q166) In Hydra, wastes of food digestion and nitrogenous wastes are removed from: Show Answer


Q167) Blood vessels leading into Bowman's capsule are called: Show Answer


Q168) In peritoneal dialysis, dialysate is passed into: Show Answer


Q169) Separation of amino acid and carboxylic groups is called: Show Answer


Q170) Presence of urea in the blood is referred to as: Show Answer


Q171) Reabsorption of water in the distal part of kidney tubules is controlled by: Show Answer


Q172) Cockroaches are: Show Answer


Q173) Volume of urine is regulated by: Show Answer


Q174) Liquid which collects in the cavity of Bowman's capsule is: Show Answer


Q175) Renin is secreted from: Show Answer


Q176) Ornithine cycle removes: Show Answer


Q177) Animals which excrete urea produced during metabolism of amino acids is: Show Answer


Q178) Which of following nephridia are not found in earthworm? Show Answer


Q179) Excretory waste of birds and reptiles are: Show Answer


Q180) When a fresh water protozoan possessing a contractile vacuole, is placed in a glass containing marine water, the vacuole will: Show Answer


Q181) Uricotelism is found in: Show Answer


Q182) Osmoregulation in Paramecium is a function of Show Answer


Q183) Formation of concentrated (hyperosmotic) urine in vertebrates generally depends on: Show Answer


Q184) Ciliated funnels found on the ventral side of kidney in frog are: Show Answer


Q185) The basic functional unit of the human kidney is: Show Answer


Q186) Blood leaving liver and moving to heart will have more concentration of: Show Answer


Q187) Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to salt water balance inside the body of living organisms? Show Answer


Q188) Which one of the following group of structure/organs have similar function? Show Answer


Q189) On the basis of Excretion tadople is: Show Answer


Q190) Which have minimum concentration of urea in blood? Show Answer


Q191) The net pressure gradient that causes the fluid to filter out of the glomeruli into the capsule is: Show Answer


Q192) A person is undergoing prolonged fasting. His urine will be found to contain abnormal quantities of: Show Answer


Q193) Sea gulls excrete excess of NaCI from: Show Answer


Q194) Juxtaglomerular cells of renal cortex synthesizes an enzyme called: Show Answer


Q195) The voluntary response to the distension of Urinary bladder is: Show Answer


Q196) Marine teleost fishes excrete: Show Answer


Q197) Part of nephron impermeable to salt is: Show Answer


Q198) Which of the following is acting as an artificial kidney in haemodialysis? Show Answer


Q199) Earthworms are: Show Answer


Q200) Angiotensinogen is a protein produced and secreted by Show Answer


Q201) Shifting of ammonotelism to ureotelism is seen in: Show Answer


Q202) Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is lined with Show Answer


Q203) JG cells, under low glomerular blood flow, release Show Answer


Q204) Consider of the following four statements (1-4) about certain desert animals such as kangaroo rat: Show Answer


Q205) Which one of the following is not a part of a renal pyramid? Show Answer


Q206) The regulation of sloute and water movement is termed: Show Answer


Q207) The total solute conentration is expressed as osmolarity or moles of solute per litre of solution. The unit of measurement of osmolarity is: Show Answer


Q208) Osmoconformers are the animals which: Show Answer


Q209) Osmoregulators are the animals that: Show Answer


Q210) Which of the following are osmoconformer animals? Show Answer


Q211) Marine bony fish have the body fluids: Show Answer


Q212) Which of the following drink and excrete excess salts through gill membrane? Show Answer


Q213) The elasmobranch and coelacanths, osmolarity of fluids is raised by accumulating osmolytes in the body. The best example of osmolytes are: Show Answer


Q214) When water is not available the camels do not produce urine but store urea in the tissues. Water is available, they rehydrate themselves by drinking how much water in 10 minutes? Show Answer


Q215) Which of the following is correct? Show Answer


Q216) Which of the following is incorrect? Show Answer


Q217) In which of the following protonephridia act as excretory oxgan? Show Answer


Q218) The two kidneys in human body are locted one on each side against the dorsal inner surface of lower back at the level of Show Answer


Q219) Cortical nephron have their glomeruli: Show Answer


Q220) Which of the following statemets is/are true? Show Answer


Q221) Which one of the following correctly explains the function of a specific part of a human nephron? Show Answer


Q222) Which of the following is (are) incorrect? Show Answer


Q223) Glucose is mainly reabsorbed in: Show Answer


Q224) Which of the following is correct with reference to haemodialysis? Show Answer


Q225) Polyuria is a condition in which Show Answer


Q226) Glucose, Na, and amino acid are actively transported substances, because Show Answer


Q227) Which of the following is both osmoregulator as well as nitrogenous product? Show Answer


Q228) With respect to mode of excretion bony fishes are? Show Answer


Q229) Identify the true statements and choose the correct option accordingly
I. Blood vessel leading to the glomerulus is called efferent arteriole
II. Vasa-recta, peritubular capillaries and glomerulus, all have blood
III. Cortical nephrons have highly reduced vasa-recta
IV. Vasa-recta runs parallel to the Henle’s loop in the juaxta-medullary nephron Show Answer


Q230) The yellow colour of urine is due to the presence of Show Answer


Q231) Structural and functional unit of the kidney is Show Answer


Q232) The net filtration pressure in the glomerulus of the kidney is Show Answer


Q233) Loop of Henle is meant for the absorption of Show Answer


Q234) Functioning of kidney is efficiently regulated by Show Answer


Q235) Select the correct pathway for the passage of urine in humans Show Answer


Q236) The waste products produced in man which need excretion are? Show Answer


Q237) Excretion of nitrogenous waste product in semisolid from occurs in Show Answer


Q238) Juxta glomerular apparatus is modification in the Show Answer


Q239) A large quantity of fluid is filtered every day by the nephrons in the kidneys. Only about 1% of it is
excreted as urine. The remaining 99% of the filtrate Show Answer


Q240) Autoregulation of GFR (Glomerulus Filtration Rate) is takes place by Show Answer


Q241) Physiologically urea is produced by the action of an enzyme Show Answer


Q242) Malpighian body or renal corpuscle is/are Show Answer


Q243) Among ammonia, uric acid and urea, which one is the most soluble? Show Answer


Q244) The living steady state has a self-regulatory mechanism which is known as Show Answer


Q245) Urine is yellow in colour, due to Show Answer


Q246) Vasa recta is minute vessel of Peritubular capillaries network, which is Show Answer


Q247) If excess water passes out from tissues without being restored by kidneys, the cells would Show Answer


Q248) Part of the kidney through which the ureter, blood vessels and nerves enters into it is Show Answer


Q249) When does glomerular filtration occurs in Bowman’s capsule? Show Answer


Q250) Smell of urine is due to the Show Answer


Q251) The counter current mechanism operates in nephron Show Answer


Q252) The average quality of urea excreted in urine by man per day is Show Answer


Q253) Melanuria is caused by the abnormal catabolism of Show Answer


Q254) Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to kidney function regulation? Show Answer


Q255) Blood leaving liver and going towards heart is rich in Show Answer


Q256) Urea synthesis occurs in Show Answer


Q257) Green glands present in some arthropods help in Show Answer


Q258) Reabsorption of the filtrate in the renal tubules takes place by Show Answer


Q259) Aldosterone causes reabsorption of …A… from distal part of tubule. This leads to increase in …B…
Here A and B refers to Show Answer


Q260) In human, excretory system consists of
I. pair of kidneys II. one pair of ureters
III. urinary bladder III. Urethra
V. skin VI. Lungs
VII. liver Show Answer


Q261) The net pressure gradient that cause the fluid to filter out of the glomeruli in the capsule is Show Answer


Q262) In the glomerulus of the nephron, the afferent arteriole is Show Answer


Q263) NaCl is returned to interstitium by Show Answer


Q264) Choose the correct statements Show Answer


Q265) Choose the correct option with respect to the maximum urea level Show Answer


Q266) Main function of DCT of nephron is to maintain the Show Answer


Q267) Uric acid is the chief nitrogenous excretory component of Show Answer


Q268) A fall in the GFR rate activates the Show Answer


Q269) Name the condition when the concentration of ketone body increases in urine Show Answer


Q270) The excretory organ in crustaceans, like prawns is Show Answer


Q271) Which one of the following statements in regard to the excretion by the human kidneys is correct? Show Answer


Q272) Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed in the Show Answer


Q273) What is the obligatory water reabsorption? Show Answer


Q274) Ammonia or urea are the waste products, which are derived from Show Answer


Q275) Transport of electrolytes through loop of Henle takes place by Show Answer


Q276) Choose the correct statement Show Answer


Q277) Which one is mismatched? Show Answer


Q278) In which of the following regions of a nephron, does maximum reabsorption of useful substances takes
place? Show Answer


Q279) Urea cycle is also called Show Answer


Q280) Percentage of electrolytes and water reabsorbed by PCT is Show Answer


Q281) ADH is also called Show Answer


Q282) Gout is a condition in which Show Answer


Q283) During urine formation, which of the following processes create high osmotic pressure in the uriniferous
tubule? Show Answer


Q284) Order of toxicity among ammonia, urea and uric acid (from lower to higher) is Show Answer


Q285) Which substance is in higher concentration in blood than in glomerular filtrate? Show Answer


Q286) Average pH of human urine is Show Answer


Q287) A portion of uric acid is converted to urea and ammonia by intestinal Show Answer


Q288) Mammals have the ability to produce Show Answer


Q289) The process of excretion is the Show Answer


Q290) Which one of the following amino acids is not found in proteins? Show Answer


Q291) Inner to the hilum of the kidney, there is a broad funnel-shaped space called Show Answer


Q292) Vasopressin released from the neurohypophysis is mainly responsible for Show Answer


Q293) What will happen if the stretch receptors of the urinary bladder wall are totally removed? Show Answer


Q294) Glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries formed by …A… (A fine branch of renal artery). Blood from the
glomerulus is carried away by an …B…
Select the correct option for A and B to complete the given NCERT statement Show Answer


Q295) RAAS Show Answer


Q296) Nephritis is caused by Show Answer


Q297) Ammonia is converted into urea in Show Answer


Q298) Solenocytes are used for Show Answer


Q299) Nitrogenous waste products are eliminated mainly as Show Answer


Q300) Acceossory excretory organs are
I. skin II. lungs
III. liver IV. sebaceous gland
Choose the correct option Show Answer


Q301) Erythropoietin is secreted from Show Answer


Q302) A fall in GFR activate …A… to release …B…, which converts angiotensinogen in blood to …C… and further to
…D…
Choose the correct option for A, B, C, D from given options Show Answer


Q303) The human kidney Show Answer


Q304) The excretory material of bony fish is Show Answer


Q305) The urine is Show Answer


Q306) I. ADH
II. Renin-angiotensin
III. ANF
IV. Counter – current mechanism which
Choose the option containing factors, which regulates the osmoregulation of body fluids? Show Answer


Q307) Counter current mechanism helps to maintain a concentration gradient. This gradient help in Show Answer


Q308) Choose the correct statement
I. Renal artery transport blood to kidney
II. Loop of Henle concentrate urine
III. Podocytes occur in inner wall of Bowman’s capsule
IV. Ultrafiltrate is blood plasma minus protein Show Answer


Q309) Which one is the component of ornithine cycle? Show Answer


Q310) Collecting duct of nephron extends kidney from cortex to Show Answer


Q311) Kidney stones are produced due to deposition of uric acid and Show Answer


Q312) Anuria is failure of Show Answer


Q313) Choose the correct order of urine formation in human Show Answer


Q314) Consider the following statements
I. Flame cells are excretory structures in flatworms.
II. Green glands are excretory organs in annelids.
III.Columns of Bertini are the conical projections of renal pelvis into renal medulla between the renal
pyramids Show Answer


Q315) Arrange the following parts of the nephron in a sequential manner and select the correct option
accordingly
I. Glomerulus
II. Bowman’s capsule
III. Henle’s loop
IV. Proximal convoluted tubule
V. Collecting duct
VI. Distal convoluted tubule Show Answer


Q316) The outline of principal event of urination is given below in unorder manner
I. Stretch receptors on the wall of urinary bladder send signal to the CNS
II. The bladder fills with urine and becomes distended
III. Micturition
IV. CNS passes on motor messenger to initiate the contraction smooth muscles of bladder and
simultaneous relaxation of urethral sphincter
The correct order of steps for urination is Show Answer


Q317) Malpighian tubules are the excretory structures of Show Answer


Q318) The first step in the urine formation is the filtration of the blood, which is carried by the …A... and is called
…B… . On an average …C… . mL of blood is filtered by kidneys per minute, which constitutes …D… of the
blood pumped out by each ventricle of the heart in a minute.
Choose the correct options for the blanks A to D to complete the given NCERT statement Show Answer


Q319) Choose the correct ones
I. Vasa recta is lacking in cortical nephrons
II. Maximum number of nephrons in kidney are juxta-medullary type
III. DCT of many nephorns open into collecting tubule
IV. During summer when body loses lot of water by evaporation, the release of ADH is suppressed
V. When someone drinks lot of water, ADH release is suppressed
VI. Exposure to cold temperature stimulates ADH release
VII. An increase in glomerular blood flow stimulates formation of angiotensin II
The correct option is Show Answer


Q320) All Bowman’s capsules of the kidney are found in Show Answer


Q321) Human kidneys can produce urine nearly Show Answer


Q322) ANF (Anti Natriuretic Factor) is released by Show Answer


Q323) Mammals excrete Show Answer


Q324) Medullary gradient is mainly developed due to Show Answer


Q325) An adult human excretes on an average Show Answer


Q326) Angiotensin-II activates the ….A…. and release ……B……
Choose the correct option for A and B to complete the given statement Show Answer


Q327) I. Ureter II. Renal pelvis, III. Calyx IV. Urinary bladder V. Urethra
Choose the correct sequence of urine route to outside Show Answer


Q328) Loop of Henle is associated with Show Answer


Q329) For brain cells the ammonia is very toxic because Show Answer


Q330) NaCl is transported by ascending limb of Henle’s loop, which is exchanged with Show Answer


Q331) Which one is related to urine concentration in mammals? Show Answer


Q332) Characteristic common in frog and human
I. Internal fertilisation
II. Nucleated RBC
III. Four chamber heart
IV. Ureotalic excretion
V. Lungs are organ of respiration
The correct option is Show Answer


Q333) A child has single kidney since birth. This variation is Show Answer


Q334) Haemodialysis helps in patient having Show Answer


Q335) JGA (Juxta Glomerular Apparatus), a sensitive region, which regulates the glomerular filtration rate is
present near the Show Answer


Q336) Choose the correct statements
I. Kidney transplantation is the ultimate method at the stage where drug or dialysis do not help
II. Close relatives are often used as kidney donors to minimise risk of rejection
III. Cylosporin-A is used as immunosuppressive agent in kidney transplant patient
IV. Heparin and antiheparin are used in haemodialysis
Choose the correct option Show Answer


Q337) What is glycosuria? Show Answer


Q338) An organism which don’t have loop of Henle will excrete Show Answer


Q339) Which among the following is the only osmoconformer vertebrate? Show Answer


Q340) Duct of Bellini opens on Show Answer


Q341) Ornithine cycle refers to the sequence of biochemical reactions taking place in the Show Answer


Q342) Facultative water reabsorption is Show Answer


Q343) Excretory product of spider is Show Answer


Q344) Henle’s loop of nephron plays a significant role in maintaining a high osmolarity in Show Answer


Q345) Micturition reflex is a neural mechanism to Show Answer


Q346) Identify the wrong statements about human excretory system and choose the correct option accordingly
I. Kidneys are reddish brown and bean-shaped structure
II. Kidneys are situated between the last thoracic and third lumber vertebra
III. Each kidney of an adult human measures 10-12 cm in length, 5-7 cm in width, 2-3 cm thickness, and
average weight 120-170 gram Show Answer


Q347) The region of the nephrons found in the renal medulla is Show Answer


Q348) Antennary glands of crustaceans are meant for Show Answer


Q349) Specific gravity of urine normally is Show Answer


Q350) During hemodialysis process
I. blood drained from a convenient artery and anticoagulant is added (heparin)
II. removal of nitrogenous waste from blood
III. blood is passed through a coiled porous cellophane membrane of tube bathing in dialysis fluid
IV. blood is mixed with antiheparin and passed into vein
Arrange the steps Show Answer


Q351) The renal fluid isotonic to the cortical fluid and blood is found in Show Answer


Q352) Which one of the following statements is false? Show Answer


Q353) Each nephron has two parts, which are Show Answer


Q354) Identify the correct statements
I. The outer layer of the kidney is called capsule
II. Cortex is divided into outer cortex and inner medulla
III. Medulla is divided into medullary pyramids
IV. The cortex extends in between the medullary pyramids which is called as columns of Bertini
Choose the correct option accordingly Show Answer


Q355) Out of the four parts given below, which parts play significant role in forming concentrated urine in
human?
I. Loop of Henle
II. Glomerulus
III. Bowman’s capsule
IV. Vasa recta
The correct option is Show Answer


Q356) Aldosterone causes conditional reabsorption of ….. in the distal part of tubule Show Answer


Q357) Alkaptonuria is a condition in which Show Answer


Q358) Sweat produced by sweat glands is a watery fluid which contain Show Answer


Q359) GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate) is the amount of filtrate formed by the kidney per Show Answer


Q360) Ammonia produced by metabolism is convered into the …A… in the …B… in ureotelic and released into the
blood, which is filtered and excreted out by …C…
Choose the appropriate options for A, B and C to complete the given NCERT statement Show Answer


Q361) How much percentage of the filtrate is reabsorbed in the renal tubules? Show Answer


Q362) Find the correct option regarding mechanism of urine formation in man. Show Answer


Q363) pH of urine (average pH) is Show Answer


Q364) If one liter of water is introduced in human blood, then Show Answer


Q365) Large amount of water is …A... from collecting duct to produce …B… urine. This segment allows passage of
small amounts of …C… into interstitium of medulla to keep up the osmolarity.
Here, A, B and C refers to Show Answer


Q366) Reabsorption of water in DCT and CT part of nephron is function of Show Answer


Q367) Choose the false statement Show Answer


Q368) In micturition Show Answer


Q369) Haemodialysis is associated with Show Answer


Q370) Glomerular filtrate is Show Answer


Q371) ANF mechanism checks on Show Answer


Q372) Urine formed by nephornes is ultimately carried to …A… where at stored fill a voluntary signal is given by
the …B… . This signal is initiated by …C… of urinary bladder as it gets filled with urine.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C to complete the given NCERT statement Show Answer


Q373) Renal portal system is Show Answer


Q374) Which of the following features activates the JG cells?
I. Fall in GBR II. Fall in GBF
III. Fall in GFR
Choose the correct option Show Answer


Q375) In majority, juxta-medullary nephrons are found in the kidney of Show Answer


Q376) Renal calculi is Show Answer


Q377) Our lungs releas Show Answer


Q378) Layers between the glomerular and Bowman’s capsule through which the filtration takes place are
I. endothelium of the glomerular blood vessel
II. middle lamella
III. basement membrane between the endothelium of glomerular blood vessels and epithelium of the
Bowman’s capsule
IV. epithelium of the Bowman’s capsule Show Answer


Q379) The conversion of dangerous nitrogenous waste into less toxic excretory matter is carried out in man in
the Show Answer


Q380) Osmoreceptores in the body is activated by the changes in
I. blood volume
II. body fluid volume
III. ionic concentration
The option containing correct statements is Show Answer


Q381) Choose the mismatched part of nephron with their function Show Answer


Q382) On an average the amount of urea in gram excreted out per day is Show Answer


Q383) Uremia is accumulation of urea in Show Answer


Q384) Urine formation involves
I. glomerular filtration
II. tubular reabsorption
III. tubular secretion
Choose the correct option for the above statements Show Answer


Q385) The shape of vasa recta is Show Answer


Q386) Animal which excrete urea, produced during metabolism of amino acid, belongs to Show Answer


Q387) RASS secretes which of the following hormone? Show Answer


Q388) Choose the correct statement
I. Flame cell is a specialised excretory organ in flatworms
II. Bundles of flame cells are called protonephridia.
The correct option is Show Answer


Q389) Which term is used both for a part of kidney and a part of skeleton in the mammals? Show Answer


Q390) Excretion of bile pigments in the urine indicates Show Answer


Q391) Out of
I. PCT II. DCT
III. Loop of Henle IV. Collecting duct
Which contributes most in maintaining pH of blood? Show Answer


Q392) A man takes large amount of proteins. He is likely to excrete a greater amount of Show Answer


Q393) Excretion means Show Answer


Q394) Renin is released by Show Answer


Q395) If Henle’s loop were absent from mammalian nephron, which of the following is to be expected? Show Answer


Q396) PCT is lined by Show Answer


Q397) Which of the following disorder is an outcome of irregularities in metabolism of the nitrogenous waste? Show Answer


Q398) Juxtaglomerular cells of renal cortex synthesize an enzyme called Show Answer


Q399) In majority of nephrons, the loop of Henley’s is found in the Show Answer


Q400) Osmoregulation is the function of Show Answer


Q401) An increase in the body fluid volume can switch off the …A… and …B… the ADH release. In this way
complete the …C…
Choose the correct option for A, B and C Show Answer


Q402) Which of the following is first formed nitrogenous waste of vertebrate? Show Answer


Q403) Urine is concentrated in which part of nephron Show Answer


Q404) The condition where urea accumulates in blood is Show Answer


Q405) A bird excretes nitrogenous waste materials in the form of Show Answer


Q406) In human, the waste products of nucleotide metabolism are excreted as Show Answer


Q407) Among ammonia, uric acid and urea; which one needs the least amount of water to excrete? Show Answer


Q408) I. Excess loss of water from body
II. Hypothalamus
III. Osmoreceptors
IV. ADH
V. Neurohypophysis
VI. Water reabsorption DCT and CT
VII. Prevention of diuresis
Arrange the given processes in correct sequence for regulation in kidney Show Answer


Q409) Angiotensin-II being a powerful …A… increase the glomerular blood pressure and there by …B… .
Angiotensin-II also activates the adrenal cortex to release …C… .
Find the correct for A, B and C Show Answer


Q410) Urine is concentrated in Show Answer


Q411) Primary function of sweat in humans is Show Answer


Q412) Which of the following are secreted by liver?
I. Bilirubin
II. Biliverdin
III. Cholesterol
IV. Degraded steroid hormone
V. Vitamin
VI. Drug
Choose the correct option Show Answer


Q413) Functions of ADH
I. reabsorption of water from distal tubules
II. secretion of water from distal tubules
III. construction of blood vessels
IV. dilatation of blood vessels
V. increase the blood flow
VI. decrease the blood flow
Choose the correct combination of given functions from given option Show Answer


Q414) Which of the following is responsible for excretion of dilute urine? Show Answer


Q415) The size of filtration slits of glomerulus is Show Answer


Q416) Indication of diabetes mellitus is/are Show Answer


Q417) The vital morphological and physiological units of mammalian kidney are Show Answer


Q418) If you take large amount of protein then you will likely to excrete large amount of the Show Answer


Q419) Choose the correct option from given options in referenced to haemodialysis
I. Blood pumped back to suitable artery
II. Heparin is used after haemodialysis
III. Nitrogenous waste are removed by active transport
IV. The dialysis unit has coiled cello phone tube
V. Blood is pumped into dialysing unit from the artery
The correct option is Show Answer


Q420) Major nitrogenous waste product in ureotelic animals like rabbit and other mammals is Show Answer


Q421) Urea cycle was discovered in Show Answer


Q422) Glomerular area of adrenal cortex is responsible for Show Answer


Q423) Filtration in Malpighian body of the nephrons involves Show Answer


Q424) Podocytes are the cells present in Show Answer


Q425) The characteristic that is shared by urea, uric acid and ammonia is/are
I. They are nitrogenous wastes.
II.They all need very large amount of water for excretion.
III.They are all equally toxic.
IV. They are equally in the kidneys. Show Answer


Q426) Uricotelic mode of passing out nitrogenous wastes is found in Show Answer


Q427) Main function of glomerulus is Show Answer


Q428) The expulsion of urine from the urinary bladder is called Show Answer


Q429) Which one is not correct? Show Answer


Q430) ADH is secreted by Show Answer


Q431) The function of Henle’s loop is Show Answer


Q432) Select the right option Show Answer


Q433) Glomerulus is formed by Show Answer


Q434) In uremia condition the urea can be removed by a process called Show Answer


Q435) Which is not correct with respect to human kidney? Show Answer


Q436) Composition of urine
I. Water …A%
II. Urea …B%
III. Uric acid …C%
IV. Salt …D%
Choose the right options for A, B, C and D from given options Show Answer


Q437) What happens in micturition? Show Answer


Q438) GFR is a healthy individual is Show Answer


Q439) Longest loop of Henle is found in Show Answer


Q440) Most of the secretory product of liver ultimately pass out along with Show Answer


Q441) Guano is Show Answer


Q442) An increase in blood flow to atria of heart can cause release of …A… causes …B… and there by decrease the
blood pressure. ANF mechanism therefore acts as checks on …C…
Here, A – C refers to Show Answer


Q443) Which of the following statements is/are true?
I. Urine is hypertonic in distal convoluted tubule.
II. When the urine passes into the collecting tubule, it becomes hypotonic.
III. Urine is isotonic in proximal convoluted tubule.
IV. Urine becomes more and more hypotonic as it passes through the Henle’s loop. Show Answer


Q444) Triazenes are derived from Show Answer


Q445) The human kidney has about Show Answer


Q446) In ornithine cycle, which of the following wastes are removed from the blood? Show Answer


Q447) Which one of the following groups of structures/organs have similar function? Show Answer


Q448) Reabsorption of glucose occurs in ….. of the nephron Show Answer


Q449) Read the statements given below
I. Reabsorption in this region in minimum
II. This region plays a significant role in the maintenance of high osmolarity of intestinal fluid
III. Its descending limb is permeable to water but almost impermeable to electrolytes
IV. Its ascending limb is impermeable to water but allows transport of electrolyte actively or passively
V. In descending limb filtrate is hypertonic, while in ascending limb filtrate is hypotonic
The above characteristics are associated with Show Answer


Q450) In 24 hours, total glomerular filtrate formed in the human kidney is Show Answer


Q451) Bowman’s capsule is found in Show Answer


Q452) Glucose is mainly absorbed in Show Answer


Q453) PCT helps in the maintenance of pH in the body fluid by Show Answer


Q454) Blackening of urine, when exposed to air is a metabolic disorder in human beings. This is due to Show Answer


Q455) Many freshwater animals cannot live for long in sea water and vice versa mainly because of the Show Answer


Q456) The medullary gradient tis mainly caused by Show Answer


Q457) The process of release of urine is called Show Answer


Q458) The ascending and descending limb of Henle’s loop is a respectively lined by Show Answer


Q459) Malpighian tubules are Show Answer


Q460) In juxta-medullary nephrons, Show Answer


Q461) Choose the correct option from given statement
I. Glomerular filtrationrate is 125 mL/min
II. Ultrafiltration is opposed by colloidal osmotic pressure of plasma
III. Tubular secretion takes place in loop in Henle
IV. Tubular secretion takes place in glomerulus
V. Aldosterone induces greater sodium reabsorption
The correct option is Show Answer


Q462) Almost all the aquatic animals excrete ammonia as the nitrogenous waste product. Which of the following
statements is not in agreement with this situation? Show Answer


Q463) Which one is the excretory organ in the following? Show Answer


Q464) In cortical nephrons, Show Answer


Q465) Other than kidney which of the following organs help in elimination of excretory wastes?
I. Lungs
II. Liver
III. Skin
IV. Spleen
Choose the correct option containing all correct organs Show Answer


Q466) The stage of ornithine cycle at which arginase enzyme is used? Show Answer


Q467) The structural unit of human kidney is Show Answer


Q468) Chick excrete their secretion in the form of Show Answer


Q469) Which of the following organs synthesises urea? Show Answer


Q470) Primary or main excretory organ in humans is Show Answer


Q471) Glomerular filtrate rate per day is Show Answer


Q472) The rupture of urinary bladder is prevented by Show Answer


Q473) Glomerulonephritis is Show Answer


Q474) Glomerular filtration occurs in Bowman’s capsule when
Hydrostatic pressure of Net filtrate pressure blood in glomerulus is Show Answer


Q475) Choose the correct option containing compounds of ornithine cycle from the options given below Show Answer


Q476) Sodium reabsorption from the distal tubule will be increased if there is an increase in Show Answer


Q477) The principle nitrogenous excretory compound in humans is synthesized Show Answer


Q478) Largest gland of our body is Show Answer


Q479) A person who is on a long hunger strike and is surviving only on water, will have? Show Answer


Q480) A terrestrial animal must be able to Show Answer


Q481) Human urine as compared to human blood is Show Answer


Q482) Wolffian body is also known as Show Answer


Q483) Which one of the following body functions is not performed by kidneys? Show Answer


Q484) Ultrafiltrate generated by the glomerulus is having all the constituent of the blood plasma except Show Answer


Q485) Which of the following is not an excretory organ? Show Answer


Q486) Podocytes are present on the Show Answer


Q487) The functioning of the kidneys is efficiently monitored and regulated by the hormonal feedback
mechanism involving Show Answer


Q488) In which part of nephron, reabsorption is minimum from filtrate? Show Answer


Q489) Which of the following structures are situated in the cortical region of the kidney?
I. Malpighian corpuscle
II. PCT (Proximal Convoluted Tubules)
III. DCT (Distal Convoluted Tubules)
IV. Loop of Henle
V. Collecting duct Show Answer


Q490) Normal level of urea in blood plasma is Show Answer


Q491) Statement 1: Nitrogenous waste from arterial blood is removed, when blood passes through dialyzer
unit.
Statement 2: Arterial blood of patient and dialyzing liquid are made to flow on two sides of permeable
membrane. Show Answer