Practice Test

1) Excretion refers to:

2) Kidney of amniotes belongs to the following type:

3) About how many nephorns are present in each kidney of human?

4) Vertebrate kidney and contractile vacuole of protozoan resemble each other in:

5) The glomerulus is responsible for:

6) A fish excretes nitrogen in the form of:

7) Capillaries of glomeruli are:

8) The kind of epithelial cells that form a lining of the neck of tubules is:

9) What kind of epithelial cells form the lining of the body of renal tubules?

10) Separation of amion acid into amino group and carboxylic group is called:

11) Uriniferous tubules are concerned with the formation of:

12) Uriniferous tubules are found:

13) The maximum amount of urea is present in:

14) Condition which result in failure of kidney is known as:

15) The function of kidney is to:

16) Materials from tubules enter cells against a gradient because of:

17) The yellow colour of urine is due to:

18) Urine is formed by the process of:

19) In the glomerular filtrate all the constituents of blood except proteins and cells are present. The process involved is:

20) The osmoregulatory tissue in all animals is:

21) The vitamin that is excreted by urine in higher vertebrates is:

22) The pressure exerted by the glomerular afferent arteriole is:

23) The difference between glomerular filtrate and blood plasma is of:

24) The end products fat metabolism are excreted by:

25) A person has taken a large amount of meal which contains high muscle protein. His urine will eliminate more amount of:

26) Which one of the following increases glomerular pressure?

27) The urinay bladder of frog performs the function of:

28) When the kidney is no longer held in place securely the stage is called the:

29) In which of the following the gut expels out excretory waste along with faeces?

30) The glomerulus is a network of:

31) What does glomerular filtrate consist of?

32) In Bright disease (Nephritis):

33) The pack rat, a rodent, often goes for long period without drinking, eats leaves of juicy plants and moves about in the open only in the evening and at night. From these habits, you can guess that it lives in:

34) The main nitrogenous waste substance excreted by the pack rat will probably be:

35) An advantage of excreting nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid is that:

36) If excess water passes out from the tissues without being restored by the kidneys, the cells would:

37) The main excretory structure in houseflies is the:

38) Salmon have gills that are more permeable to water than to salts. Salmon hatch in fresh water streams, and then migrate to the ocean. Once they reach the ocean you would expect the rate of uptake of water into their body through the gills to:

39) Urine leaves the kidney via:

40) The loop if Henle is most highly developed in:

41) All the following tests are used to know the abnormality in the kidney except:

42) In birds, the nitrogenous wastes are conveyed to the exterior directly through the:

43) Urea is formed by the combination of ammonia with and in:

44) The cavity of the kidney which leads into ureter is called:

45) In kidney the high capillary bed is found:

46) Angiotensin stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone which influences in the blood the level of:

47) Reabsorption is controlled partly by ADH which is secreted by:

48) The amino acids are excreted as such from the body in any one of the followings:

49) Ammonia is the end product of:

50) Ornithine cycle is concerned with the production of:

51) Which one of the following substances is completely reabsorbed from the filtrate in the renal tubule under normal condition?

52) A terrestrial animal must be able to:

53) In the functional kidney which of the following process does not occur?

54) The elimination of the insoluble calcium phosphate takes palce by:

55) The polypeptide which plays a key role in the renal pressure system is::

56) The chief nitrogenous waste material in the urine of frog is:

57) Physiologically urea is produced by the action of an enzyme:

58) The system which restores impaired renal circulation is known as:

59) Human kidney is differntiated into:

60) Opening into the tubules of the kidney of frog from the coelom are a number of ciliated funnel-like structures called:

61) The high threshold substances are:

62) The process because of which marine animals make adjustments in high salt concentration is:

63) Carbon dioxide is an excretory product because it is formed during:

64) The disease diabetes mellitus is diagnosed by the occurrence in urine of:

65) In insects, the uric acid is temporarily stored in the:

66) Urinary bladder is not found in:

67) Important function of perspiration is to:

68) Which of the following is not an excretory activity?

69) Proximal and distal convoluted tubules are parts of a:

70) A person feels a fullness senstion of urine if the volume of urine increases up to:

71) Which of the following are is not directly connected with cell metabolism?

72) The urination becomes voluntary when the urine reaches in the:

73) Green glands are organs of excretion. They are seen in:

74) The cells of proximal tubule develop several microvilli to form brush border. The number of microvilli per square micron in human being is:

75) The glomerular membrane has permeability about:

76) The water reabsorption takes place under the ADH is called the:

77) In which group the toxic substance, the benzoic acid combines with glycine to form a less toxic substance the hippuric acid?

78) Bowman's capsule functions as a:

79) Whenever the amount of urine decreases the stage is called?

80) If a person suffering from a disease called muscular dystrophy, he will eliminate in urine great amount of:

81) Ammonia in some aquatic animals is eliminated by:

82) In reptiles, the uric acid is stored in:

83) Animals that show hypertonic urine with provision for water reabsorption in the kidney are:

84) In aquatic organism the end product of nitrogen exchange is:

85) In fever too much of sugur may increase. Its elimination in urine is in the form of:

86) Excretion of bile pigments in urine indicates:

87) pH of human urine is:

88) Which of the following is not reabsorbed from the filtrated to the blood at proximal tubule?

89) Deamination occurs during the:

90) Malpighian body refers to:

91) Diameter of afferent arteriole entering the Bowman's capsule is:

92) Which of the following is not functionally analogous with others in its group?

93) All the following are related to disease of kidney except:

94) Which of the following is concerned with formation of urea in rabbit?

95) The glomerular filtration rate in case of a normal person is:

96) The average volume of fluid filtered from the plasma into Bowman's capsule is about:

97) The desire to urinate may be suppressed by voluntary control of the external urethral sphincter until the total content is:

98) Negative nitrogen balance means:

99) A person who is starving, that is, not having food, water and beverage will have:

100) Which of the following does not produce uric acid as the main excretory product?

101) Which of the following is not a constituent of normal urine?

102) All the functions are performed by the kidney except:

103) Which of the following tissues form the lining of Bowman's capsule?

104) Urine gets concentrated in:

105) The passing out of almost solid wastes along with faeces in reptiles is an indication of:

106) The blood leaving the kidney is significantly lower in:

107) Filtration into the kidney tubule is accomplished by means of:

108) Severe dehydration causes a decrease in osmotic potential in the blood. This causes a(n) (increase/decrease) in the amount of urine produced. This change in urine production is caused primarily by:

109) Which of the following best explains reabsorption in the tubules of nephrons?

110) Pick up the odd one?

111) Final wastes from adenine and guanine (purines) is:

112) Human kidneys are:

113) Human kidneys are analogous to:

114) Mammals excrete urine which is:

115) Rise of blood pressure decreases the secretion of ADH resulting in the increased urine output. Fall in blood pressure will:

116) Henle's loop is meant for absorption of:

117) Many fresh water vertebrates excrete:

118) ADH is also known as:

119) Glomerular filtrate dose not contain:

120) Presence of blood in urine due to lesion of kidney or urinay tract is called:

121) The specific gravity of urine is:

122) Ammonia is chief nitrogenous waster in:

123) Blood urea level is an index of function:

124) Most of the terrestrial insects get rid of the bulk of their nitrogenous wastes as:

125) The artificial kidney is based upon the mechanism of:

126) Which of the following is diluting segment of uriniferous tubule?

127) A marine bony fish must continuously:

128) In the flame cell system of a planarian, materials are drained directly from the:

129) The flame cell system function mostly to:

130) The kidney regulates acid-base balance by each of the following mechanisms except:

131) In insects, Malpighian tubules drain materials directly from the:

132) A Malpighian tubule empties urine into the:

133) A nephridium of an earthworm drains materials directly from the:

134) Which of the following statements about the kidney is correct?

135) A normal room temperature most body heat loss is by:

136) The force that moves fluid from the blood through the walls of a capillary and Bowman's capsule of a nephron is:

137) When the temperature of the surroundings is greater than the body temperature, heat loss is possible only through which of the following?

138) Osmoregulation is control over the:

139) For which of the following substances would you expect the renal clearance to be the lowest, under normal conditions?

140) In which of these animals, antennal gland functions as excretory organ?

141) A fresh water fish must continuously:

142) In the kidney:

143) The kidney not only remove the water products form the blood but also play a very important role in maintaining:

144) Bowman's capsule is part of:

145) In which stages of ornithine cycle the enzyme arginase is used:

146) The kidney of adult frog is:

147) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus forms:

148) Sea gull excretes excess of NaCI through:

149) In human body urea is produced as an excretory product in the:

150) In peritoneal dialysis, the dialysate is introduced into:

151) What is impermeable for the ascending limb of loop of Henle?

152) Why do we pass more urine in wet and cold season:

153) The ornithine cycle removes two waste products from the blood in liver. These waste products are:

154) Functionwise, just as there are nephridia in an earthworm, so are:

155) Loop of Henle is meant for absorption of:

156) In, the kidney of man glomerular number is:

157) The excretion in Entamoeba histolytica takes place by:

158) In the formation of urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide combine using three amino acids. These are:

159) The functional kidney of frog tadpole is:

160) Aquatic reptiles are:

161) Blood which leaves liver and passes towards heart has higher concentration of:

162) Characteristic of metanephric kidney is:

163) In nephrons there is complete absorption of:

164) In kidney, nephrostomes are functional in:

165) Ammonia is converted into urea through a cycle called:

166) Urine is always fluid except in:

167) Urine is transported through:

168) In Hydra, wastes of food digestion and nitrogenous wastes are removed from:

169) Blood vessels leading into Bowman's capsule are called:

170) In peritoneal dialysis, dialysate is passed into:

171) Separation of amino acid and carboxylic groups is called:

172) Presence of urea in the blood is referred to as:

173) Reabsorption of water in the distal part of kidney tubules is controlled by:

174) Cockroaches are:

175) Volume of urine is regulated by:

176) Liquid which collects in the cavity of Bowman's capsule is:

177) Renin is secreted from:

178) Ornithine cycle removes:

179) Animals which excrete urea produced during metabolism of amino acids is:

180) Which of following nephridia are not found in earthworm?

181) Excretory waste of birds and reptiles are:

182) When a fresh water protozoan possessing a contractile vacuole, is placed in a glass containing marine water, the vacuole will:

183) Uricotelism is found in:

184) Osmoregulation in Paramecium is a function of

185) Formation of concentrated (hyperosmotic) urine in vertebrates generally depends on:

186) Ciliated funnels found on the ventral side of kidney in frog are:

187) The basic functional unit of the human kidney is:

188) Blood leaving liver and moving to heart will have more concentration of:

189) Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to salt water balance inside the body of living organisms?

190) Which one of the following group of structure/organs have similar function?

191) On the basis of Excretion tadople is:

192) Which have minimum concentration of urea in blood?

193) The net pressure gradient that causes the fluid to filter out of the glomeruli into the capsule is:

194) A person is undergoing prolonged fasting. His urine will be found to contain abnormal quantities of:

195) Sea gulls excrete excess of NaCI from:

196) Juxtaglomerular cells of renal cortex synthesizes an enzyme called:

197) The voluntary response to the distension of Urinary bladder is:

198) Marine teleost fishes excrete:

199) Antennary glands of crustaceans are for:

200) Part of nephron impermeable to salt is:

201) Which of the following is first formed nitrogenous waste of vertebrate?

202) Which of the following is acting as an artificial kidney in haemodialysis?

203) Earthworms are:

204) Angiotensinogen is a protein produced and secreted by

205) A person who is on a long hunger strike and is surviving only on water, will have:

206) Shifting of ammonotelism to ureotelism is seen in:

207) Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is lined with

208) JG cells, under low glomerular blood flow, release

209) Consider of the following four statements (1-4) about certain desert animals such as kangaroo rat:

210) Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to kidney function regulation?

211) Which one of the following is not a part of a renal pyramid?

212) The regulation of sloute and water movement is termed:

213) The total solute conentration is expressed as osmolarity or moles of solute per litre of solution. The unit of measurement of osmolarity is:

214) Osmoconformers are the animals which:

215) Osmoregulators are the animals that:

216) Which of the following are osmoconformer animals?

217) Marine bony fish have the body fluids:

218) Which of the following drink and excrete excess salts through gill membrane?

219) The elasmobranch and coelacanths, osmolarity of fluids is raised by accumulating osmolytes in the body. The best example of osmolytes are:

220) When water is not available the camels do not produce urine but store urea in the tissues. Water is available, they rehydrate themselves by drinking how much water in 10 minutes?

221) Which of the following is correct?

222) Which of the following is incorrect?

223) In which of the following protonephridia act as excretory oxgan?

224) The two kidneys in human body are locted one on each side against the dorsal inner surface of lower back at the level of

225) Cortical nephron have their glomeruli:

226) Which of the following statemets is/are true?

227) Which one of the following correctly explains the function of a specific part of a human nephron?

228) Which of the following is (are) incorrect?

229) Glucose is mainly reabsorbed in:

230) Which of the following is correct with reference to haemodialysis?

231) Polyuria is a condition in which

232) Glucose, Na, and amino acid are actively transported substances, because

233) Which of the following is both osmoregulator as well as nitrogenous product?

234) With respect to mode of excretion bony fishes are?

235) Identify the true statements and choose the correct option accordingly
I. Blood vessel leading to the glomerulus is called efferent arteriole
II. Vasa-recta, peritubular capillaries and glomerulus, all have blood
III. Cortical nephrons have highly reduced vasa-recta
IV. Vasa-recta runs parallel to the Henle’s loop in the juaxta-medullary nephron

236) The yellow colour of urine is due to the presence of

237) Structural and functional unit of the kidney is

238) The net filtration pressure in the glomerulus of the kidney is

239) Loop of Henle is meant for the absorption of

240) Functioning of kidney is efficiently regulated by

241) Select the correct pathway for the passage of urine in humans

242) The waste products produced in man which need excretion are?

243) Excretion of nitrogenous waste product in semisolid from occurs in

244) Juxta glomerular apparatus is modification in the

245) A large quantity of fluid is filtered every day by the nephrons in the kidneys. Only about 1% of it is
excreted as urine. The remaining 99% of the filtrate

246) Autoregulation of GFR (Glomerulus Filtration Rate) is takes place by

247) Physiologically urea is produced by the action of an enzyme

248) Malpighian body or renal corpuscle is/are

249) Among ammonia, uric acid and urea, which one is the most soluble?

250) The living steady state has a self-regulatory mechanism which is known as

251) Urine is yellow in colour, due to

252) Vasa recta is minute vessel of Peritubular capillaries network, which is

253) If excess water passes out from tissues without being restored by kidneys, the cells would

254) Part of the kidney through which the ureter, blood vessels and nerves enters into it is

255) When does glomerular filtration occurs in Bowman’s capsule?

256) Smell of urine is due to the

257) The counter current mechanism operates in nephron

258) The average quality of urea excreted in urine by man per day is

259) Melanuria is caused by the abnormal catabolism of

260) Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to kidney function regulation?

261) Blood leaving liver and going towards heart is rich in

262) Urea synthesis occurs in

263) Green glands present in some arthropods help in

264) Reabsorption of the filtrate in the renal tubules takes place by

265) Aldosterone causes reabsorption of …A… from distal part of tubule. This leads to increase in …B…
Here A and B refers to

266) In human, excretory system consists of
I. pair of kidneys II. one pair of ureters
III. urinary bladder III. Urethra
V. skin VI. Lungs
VII. liver

267) The net pressure gradient that cause the fluid to filter out of the glomeruli in the capsule is

268) In the glomerulus of the nephron, the afferent arteriole is

269) NaCl is returned to interstitium by

270) Choose the correct statements

271) Choose the correct option with respect to the maximum urea level

272) Main function of DCT of nephron is to maintain the

273) Uric acid is the chief nitrogenous excretory component of

274) A fall in the GFR rate activates the

275) Name the condition when the concentration of ketone body increases in urine

276) The excretory organ in crustaceans, like prawns is

277) Which one of the following statements in regard to the excretion by the human kidneys is correct?

278) Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed in the

279) What is the obligatory water reabsorption?

280) Ammonia or urea are the waste products, which are derived from

281) Transport of electrolytes through loop of Henle takes place by

282) Choose the correct statement

283) Which one is mismatched?

284) In which of the following regions of a nephron, does maximum reabsorption of useful substances takes

285) Urea cycle is also called

286) Percentage of electrolytes and water reabsorbed by PCT is

287) ADH is also called

288) Gout is a condition in which

289) During urine formation, which of the following processes create high osmotic pressure in the uriniferous

290) Order of toxicity among ammonia, urea and uric acid (from lower to higher) is

291) Which substance is in higher concentration in blood than in glomerular filtrate?

292) Average pH of human urine is

293) A portion of uric acid is converted to urea and ammonia by intestinal

294) Mammals have the ability to produce

295) The process of excretion is the

296) Which one of the following amino acids is not found in proteins?

297) Inner to the hilum of the kidney, there is a broad funnel-shaped space called

298) Vasopressin released from the neurohypophysis is mainly responsible for

299) What will happen if the stretch receptors of the urinary bladder wall are totally removed?

300) Glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries formed by …A… (A fine branch of renal artery). Blood from the
glomerulus is carried away by an …B…
Select the correct option for A and B to complete the given NCERT statement

301) RAAS

302) Nephritis is caused by

303) Ammonia is converted into urea in

304) Solenocytes are used for

305) Nitrogenous waste products are eliminated mainly as

306) Acceossory excretory organs are
I. skin II. lungs
III. liver IV. sebaceous gland
Choose the correct option

307) Erythropoietin is secreted from

308) A fall in GFR activate …A… to release …B…, which converts angiotensinogen in blood to …C… and further to
Choose the correct option for A, B, C, D from given options

309) The human kidney

310) The excretory material of bony fish is

311) The urine is

312) I. ADH
II. Renin-angiotensin
IV. Counter – current mechanism which
Choose the option containing factors, which regulates the osmoregulation of body fluids?

313) Counter current mechanism helps to maintain a concentration gradient. This gradient help in

314) Choose the correct statement
I. Renal artery transport blood to kidney
II. Loop of Henle concentrate urine
III. Podocytes occur in inner wall of Bowman’s capsule
IV. Ultrafiltrate is blood plasma minus protein

315) Which one is the component of ornithine cycle?

316) Collecting duct of nephron extends kidney from cortex to

317) Kidney stones are produced due to deposition of uric acid and

318) Anuria is failure of

319) Choose the correct order of urine formation in human

320) Consider the following statements
I. Flame cells are excretory structures in flatworms.
II. Green glands are excretory organs in annelids.
III.Columns of Bertini are the conical projections of renal pelvis into renal medulla between the renal

321) Arrange the following parts of the nephron in a sequential manner and select the correct option
I. Glomerulus
II. Bowman’s capsule
III. Henle’s loop
IV. Proximal convoluted tubule
V. Collecting duct
VI. Distal convoluted tubule

322) The outline of principal event of urination is given below in unorder manner
I. Stretch receptors on the wall of urinary bladder send signal to the CNS
II. The bladder fills with urine and becomes distended
III. Micturition
IV. CNS passes on motor messenger to initiate the contraction smooth muscles of bladder and
simultaneous relaxation of urethral sphincter
The correct order of steps for urination is

323) Malpighian tubules are the excretory structures of

324) The first step in the urine formation is the filtration of the blood, which is carried by the …A... and is called
…B… . On an average …C… . mL of blood is filtered by kidneys per minute, which constitutes …D… of the
blood pumped out by each ventricle of the heart in a minute.
Choose the correct options for the blanks A to D to complete the given NCERT statement

325) Choose the correct ones
I. Vasa recta is lacking in cortical nephrons
II. Maximum number of nephrons in kidney are juxta-medullary type
III. DCT of many nephorns open into collecting tubule
IV. During summer when body loses lot of water by evaporation, the release of ADH is suppressed
V. When someone drinks lot of water, ADH release is suppressed
VI. Exposure to cold temperature stimulates ADH release
VII. An increase in glomerular blood flow stimulates formation of angiotensin II
The correct option is

326) All Bowman’s capsules of the kidney are found in

327) Human kidneys can produce urine nearly

328) ANF (Anti Natriuretic Factor) is released by

329) Mammals excrete

330) Medullary gradient is mainly developed due to

331) An adult human excretes on an average

332) Angiotensin-II activates the ….A…. and release ……B……
Choose the correct option for A and B to complete the given statement

333) I. Ureter II. Renal pelvis, III. Calyx IV. Urinary bladder V. Urethra
Choose the correct sequence of urine route to outside

334) Loop of Henle is associated with

335) For brain cells the ammonia is very toxic because

336) NaCl is transported by ascending limb of Henle’s loop, which is exchanged with

337) Which one is related to urine concentration in mammals?

338) Characteristic common in frog and human
I. Internal fertilisation
II. Nucleated RBC
III. Four chamber heart
IV. Ureotalic excretion
V. Lungs are organ of respiration
The correct option is

339) A child has single kidney since birth. This variation is

340) Haemodialysis helps in patient having

341) JGA (Juxta Glomerular Apparatus), a sensitive region, which regulates the glomerular filtration rate is
present near the

342) Choose the correct statements
I. Kidney transplantation is the ultimate method at the stage where drug or dialysis do not help
II. Close relatives are often used as kidney donors to minimise risk of rejection
III. Cylosporin-A is used as immunosuppressive agent in kidney transplant patient
IV. Heparin and antiheparin are used in haemodialysis
Choose the correct option

343) What is glycosuria?

344) An organism which don’t have loop of Henle will excrete

345) Which among the following is the only osmoconformer vertebrate?

346) Duct of Bellini opens on

347) Ornithine cycle refers to the sequence of biochemical reactions taking place in the

348) In the nephron of rabbit, reabsorption of glucose occurs in

349) Facultative water reabsorption is

350) Excretory product of spider is

351) Henle’s loop of nephron plays a significant role in maintaining a high osmolarity in

352) Micturition reflex is a neural mechanism to

353) Identify the wrong statements about human excretory system and choose the correct option accordingly
I. Kidneys are reddish brown and bean-shaped structure
II. Kidneys are situated between the last thoracic and third lumber vertebra
III. Each kidney of an adult human measures 10-12 cm in length, 5-7 cm in width, 2-3 cm thickness, and
average weight 120-170 gram

354) The region of the nephrons found in the renal medulla is

355) Antennary glands of crustaceans are meant for

356) Specific gravity of urine normally is

357) During hemodialysis process
I. blood drained from a convenient artery and anticoagulant is added (heparin)
II. removal of nitrogenous waste from blood
III. blood is passed through a coiled porous cellophane membrane of tube bathing in dialysis fluid
IV. blood is mixed with antiheparin and passed into vein
Arrange the steps

358) The renal fluid isotonic to the cortical fluid and blood is found in

359) Which one of the following statements is false?

360) Each nephron has two parts, which are

361) Identify the correct statements
I. The outer layer of the kidney is called capsule
II. Cortex is divided into outer cortex and inner medulla
III. Medulla is divided into medullary pyramids
IV. The cortex extends in between the medullary pyramids which is called as columns of Bertini
Choose the correct option accordingly

362) Out of the four parts given below, which parts play significant role in forming concentrated urine in
I. Loop of Henle
II. Glomerulus
III. Bowman’s capsule
IV. Vasa recta
The correct option is

363) Aldosterone causes conditional reabsorption of ….. in the distal part of tubule

364) Alkaptonuria is a condition in which

365) Sweat produced by sweat glands is a watery fluid which contain

366) GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate) is the amount of filtrate formed by the kidney per

367) Ammonia produced by metabolism is convered into the …A… in the …B… in ureotelic and released into the
blood, which is filtered and excreted out by …C…
Choose the appropriate options for A, B and C to complete the given NCERT statement

368) How much percentage of the filtrate is reabsorbed in the renal tubules?

369) Find the correct option regarding mechanism of urine formation in man.

370) pH of urine (average pH) is

371) If one liter of water is introduced in human blood, then

372) Large amount of water is …A... from collecting duct to produce …B… urine. This segment allows passage of
small amounts of …C… into interstitium of medulla to keep up the osmolarity.
Here, A, B and C refers to

373) Reabsorption of water in DCT and CT part of nephron is function of

374) Choose the false statement

375) In micturition

376) Haemodialysis is associated with

377) Glomerular filtrate is

378) ANF mechanism checks on

379) Urine formed by nephornes is ultimately carried to …A… where at stored fill a voluntary signal is given by
the …B… . This signal is initiated by …C… of urinary bladder as it gets filled with urine.
Choose the correct option for A, B and C to complete the given NCERT statement

380) Renal portal system is

381) Which of the following features activates the JG cells?
I. Fall in GBR II. Fall in GBF
III. Fall in GFR
Choose the correct option

382) In majority, juxta-medullary nephrons are found in the kidney of

383) Renal calculi is

384) Our lungs releas

385) Layers between the glomerular and Bowman’s capsule through which the filtration takes place are
I. endothelium of the glomerular blood vessel
II. middle lamella
III. basement membrane between the endothelium of glomerular blood vessels and epithelium of the
Bowman’s capsule
IV. epithelium of the Bowman’s capsule

386) The conversion of dangerous nitrogenous waste into less toxic excretory matter is carried out in man in

387) Osmoreceptores in the body is activated by the changes in
I. blood volume
II. body fluid volume
III. ionic concentration
The option containing correct statements is

388) Choose the mismatched part of nephron with their function

389) On an average the amount of urea in gram excreted out per day is

390) Uremia is accumulation of urea in

391) Urine formation involves
I. glomerular filtration
II. tubular reabsorption
III. tubular secretion
Choose the correct option for the above statements

392) The shape of vasa recta is

393) Animal which excrete urea, produced during metabolism of amino acid, belongs to

394) RASS secretes which of the following hormone?

395) Choose the correct statement
I. Flame cell is a specialised excretory organ in flatworms
II. Bundles of flame cells are called protonephridia.
The correct option is

396) Which term is used both for a part of kidney and a part of skeleton in the mammals?

397) Excretion of bile pigments in the urine indicates

398) Out of
III. Loop of Henle IV. Collecting duct
Which contributes most in maintaining pH of blood?

399) A man takes large amount of proteins. He is likely to excrete a greater amount of

400) Excretion means

401) Renin is released by

402) If Henle’s loop were absent from mammalian nephron, which of the following is to be expected?

403) PCT is lined by

404) Which of the following disorder is an outcome of irregularities in metabolism of the nitrogenous waste?

405) Juxtaglomerular cells of renal cortex synthesize an enzyme called

406) In majority of nephrons, the loop of Henley’s is found in the

407) Osmoregulation is the function of

408) An increase in the body fluid volume can switch off the …A… and …B… the ADH release. In this way
complete the …C…
Choose the correct option for A, B and C

409) Which of the following is first formed nitrogenous waste of vertebrate?

410) Urine is concentrated in which part of nephron

411) The condition where urea accumulates in blood is

412) A bird excretes nitrogenous waste materials in the form of

413) In human, the waste products of nucleotide metabolism are excreted as

414) Among ammonia, uric acid and urea; which one needs the least amount of water to excrete?

415) I. Excess loss of water from body
II. Hypothalamus
III. Osmoreceptors
V. Neurohypophysis
VI. Water reabsorption DCT and CT
VII. Prevention of diuresis
Arrange the given processes in correct sequence for regulation in kidney

416) Angiotensin-II being a powerful …A… increase the glomerular blood pressure and there by …B… .
Angiotensin-II also activates the adrenal cortex to release …C… .
Find the correct for A, B and C

417) Urine is concentrated in

418) Primary function of sweat in humans is

419) Which of the following are secreted by liver?
I. Bilirubin
II. Biliverdin
III. Cholesterol
IV. Degraded steroid hormone
V. Vitamin
VI. Drug
Choose the correct option

420) Functions of ADH
I. reabsorption of water from distal tubules
II. secretion of water from distal tubules
III. construction of blood vessels
IV. dilatation of blood vessels
V. increase the blood flow
VI. decrease the blood flow
Choose the correct combination of given functions from given option

421) Which of the following is responsible for excretion of dilute urine?

422) The size of filtration slits of glomerulus is

423) Indication of diabetes mellitus is/are

424) The vital morphological and physiological units of mammalian kidney are

425) If you take large amount of protein then you will likely to excrete large amount of the

426) Choose the correct option from given options in referenced to haemodialysis
I. Blood pumped back to suitable artery
II. Heparin is used after haemodialysis
III. Nitrogenous waste are removed by active transport
IV. The dialysis unit has coiled cello phone tube
V. Blood is pumped into dialysing unit from the artery
The correct option is

427) Major nitrogenous waste product in ureotelic animals like rabbit and other mammals is

428) Urea cycle was discovered in

429) Glomerular area of adrenal cortex is responsible for

430) Filtration in Malpighian body of the nephrons involves

431) Podocytes are the cells present in

432) The characteristic that is shared by urea, uric acid and ammonia is/are
I. They are nitrogenous wastes.
II.They all need very large amount of water for excretion.
III.They are all equally toxic.
IV. They are equally in the kidneys.

433) Uricotelic mode of passing out nitrogenous wastes is found in

434) Main function of glomerulus is

435) The expulsion of urine from the urinary bladder is called

436) Which one is not correct?

437) ADH is secreted by

438) The function of Henle’s loop is

439) Select the right option

440) Glomerulus is formed by

441) In uremia condition the urea can be removed by a process called

442) Which is not correct with respect to human kidney?

443) Composition of urine
I. Water …A%
II. Urea …B%
III. Uric acid …C%
IV. Salt …D%
Choose the right options for A, B, C and D from given options

444) What happens in micturition?

445) GFR is a healthy individual is

446) Longest loop of Henle is found in

447) Most of the secretory product of liver ultimately pass out along with

448) Guano is

449) An increase in blood flow to atria of heart can cause release of …A… causes …B… and there by decrease the
blood pressure. ANF mechanism therefore acts as checks on …C…
Here, A – C refers to

450) Which of the following statements is/are true?
I. Urine is hypertonic in distal convoluted tubule.
II. When the urine passes into the collecting tubule, it becomes hypotonic.
III. Urine is isotonic in proximal convoluted tubule.
IV. Urine becomes more and more hypotonic as it passes through the Henle’s loop.

451) Triazenes are derived from

452) The human kidney has about

453) In ornithine cycle, which of the following wastes are removed from the blood?

454) Which one of the following groups of structures/organs have similar function?

455) Reabsorption of glucose occurs in ….. of the nephron

456) Read the statements given below
I. Reabsorption in this region in minimum
II. This region plays a significant role in the maintenance of high osmolarity of intestinal fluid
III. Its descending limb is permeable to water but almost impermeable to electrolytes
IV. Its ascending limb is impermeable to water but allows transport of electrolyte actively or passively
V. In descending limb filtrate is hypertonic, while in ascending limb filtrate is hypotonic
The above characteristics are associated with

457) In 24 hours, total glomerular filtrate formed in the human kidney is

458) Bowman’s capsule is found in

459) Glucose is mainly absorbed in

460) PCT helps in the maintenance of pH in the body fluid by

461) Blackening of urine, when exposed to air is a metabolic disorder in human beings. This is due to

462) Many freshwater animals cannot live for long in sea water and vice versa mainly because of the

463) The medullary gradient tis mainly caused by

464) The process of release of urine is called

465) The ascending and descending limb of Henle’s loop is a respectively lined by

466) Malpighian tubules are

467) In juxta-medullary nephrons,

468) Choose the correct option from given statement
I. Glomerular filtrationrate is 125 mL/min
II. Ultrafiltration is opposed by colloidal osmotic pressure of plasma
III. Tubular secretion takes place in loop in Henle
IV. Tubular secretion takes place in glomerulus
V. Aldosterone induces greater sodium reabsorption
The correct option is

469) Almost all the aquatic animals excrete ammonia as the nitrogenous waste product. Which of the following
statements is not in agreement with this situation?

470) Which one is the excretory organ in the following?

471) In cortical nephrons,

472) Other than kidney which of the following organs help in elimination of excretory wastes?
I. Lungs
II. Liver
III. Skin
IV. Spleen
Choose the correct option containing all correct organs

473) The stage of ornithine cycle at which arginase enzyme is used?

474) The structural unit of human kidney is

475) Chick excrete their secretion in the form of

476) Which of the following organs synthesises urea?

477) Primary or main excretory organ in humans is

478) Glomerular filtrate rate per day is

479) The rupture of urinary bladder is prevented by

480) Glomerulonephritis is

481) Glomerular filtration occurs in Bowman’s capsule when
Hydrostatic pressure of Net filtrate pressure blood in glomerulus is

482) Choose the correct option containing compounds of ornithine cycle from the options given below

483) Sodium reabsorption from the distal tubule will be increased if there is an increase in

484) The principle nitrogenous excretory compound in humans is synthesized

485) Largest gland of our body is

486) A person who is on a long hunger strike and is surviving only on water, will have?

487) A terrestrial animal must be able to

488) Human urine as compared to human blood is

489) Wolffian body is also known as

490) Which one of the following body functions is not performed by kidneys?

491) Ultrafiltrate generated by the glomerulus is having all the constituent of the blood plasma except

492) Which of the following is not an excretory organ?

493) Podocytes are present on the

494) The functioning of the kidneys is efficiently monitored and regulated by the hormonal feedback
mechanism involving

495) In which part of nephron, reabsorption is minimum from filtrate?

496) Which of the following structures are situated in the cortical region of the kidney?
I. Malpighian corpuscle
II. PCT (Proximal Convoluted Tubules)
III. DCT (Distal Convoluted Tubules)
IV. Loop of Henle
V. Collecting duct

497) Normal level of urea in blood plasma is

498) Statement 1: Nitrogenous waste from arterial blood is removed, when blood passes through dialyzer
Statement 2: Arterial blood of patient and dialyzing liquid are made to flow on two sides of permeable