Practice Test


1) Which one is the common point in Lamarckism and Darwinism?


2) Genetic drift is on account of:


3) Reproductive isolation between segments of a single population is termed:


4) The present Giraffe has a long neck as compared to its ancestors. According to present day view could be due to:


5) Appearance of ancestral characters in the new borns, such as tail, multiple mammae etc. are known as:


6) Now-a-days Lamarckian theory is being reviewed in the light of modern concept of evolution under the heading Neo-Lamarckism. Who proved that the genes are influenced by the physical and chemical factors, so that they bring remarkable changes to the offsprings:


7) According to the Neo-Lamarckism:


8) One of the following is most essential of evolution:


9) Changes in genetic characters on accumulation, leading to formation of new individuals is characteristics of:


10) Radiations with successful adaptations in case of insects over a major period is a result of:


11) The term used for similarity in organ structure seen in great diversity is:


12) Darwinism fails to explain:


13) Fishes to mammals have a similar structure with respect to:


14) Balancing selection promotes:


15) Cladogenesis refers to:


16) Allopatric speciation is due to:


17) The most complex cellular structures are found in:


18) The oldest fossil of a mammal is from the:


19) Successful adaptation simply means:


20) The unit of evolution is now known to be the:


21) The unit of natural selection is the:


22) Total collection of genes at any one time in a unit of evolution is called the:


23) A change in the relative abundance of an allele (the allelic frequency) within a population, over a succession of generations is called:


24) Micro-evolution can be measured by comparing observed allelic frequencies with those predicted by:


25) A potential danger to a population that has been greatly reduced in number is the:


26) All alleles originate from:


27) A beneficial allele increases more rapidly in frequency if it is:


28) Sympatric speciation occurs most commonly in:


29) Reproductive isolation in a sympatric speciation develops without a:


30) Darwin found that South American fossils are most similar to:


31) Drawin believed that a Giraffe has a long neck because:


32) According to Darwin, two different areas within a continent have different species because they have different:


33) Population of Biston betularia change from 1% dark 99% light individuals, 99% dark and 1% light individuals between 1848 to 1898. The selective agent causing the change was:


34) The most important evidence since Darwin bears on his theory has been the area of:


35) Phylogeny describes a species:


36) Plants and animals of the Galapagos Islands resemble most closely the plants and animals of:


37) Similar traits resulting from similar selection pressures acting on similar gene pools is:


38) The process of evolution:


39) Organic evolution means:


40) Evolution is generally:


41) Evolution means:


42) Charles Darwin toured in a ship for 5 years. It was:


43) The modern theory of organic evolution is based on:


44) Genetic variation arises by:


45) Genes mutate by:


46) Natural selection really means:


47) Saltations is the name given to:


48) Role of isolation in evolution is:


49) Which is the most important factor for the development of a new species?


50) There is more competition for survival between:


51) Speciation depends on the sum total of adaptive changes preserved by:


52) Separation of a variant population from the original population by a mountain is called:


53) The propounder of theory of Natural Selection was:


54) The doctrine of evolution is particularly concerned with:


55) The theory of inheritance of acquired characters was proposed by:


56) Organic evolution refers to:


57) Retrogressive evolution refers to:


58) The various concepts such as conflict, struggle and survival were first introduced by:


59) De vries worked on the plant:


60) Mechanical isolation in plants is illustrated with an example of:


61) Speciation in two adjacent populations refers to:


62) Which of the following is not a part of Lamarck theory of evolution?


63) Who wrote the famous book "Philosophie Zoologique."


64) According to Darwin, the different populations of the same species are referred to as:


65) Acquired characters are inherited. Who of the following scientist did not support the idea?


66) Staunch supporter of Neo-Lamarckism is:


67) Drawin theory of natural selection:


68) The concept of evolution through natural selection remains incomplete without:


69) Who performed famous inbreeding experiments to expose inefficiency of Darwinism?


70) Adaptive radiation is:


71) Two different groups evolve in such a way so as to produce similar traits. This is an example of:


72) Marine arthropods were preadapted to terrestrial life by having:


73) "An organ is used well, it will develop better and if it is not used, it is likely to become vestigial". This was given by:


74) Blood precipitation tests are useful in:


75) A scientist kept 72 generations of Drosophila in darkness, even after that the first flies had normal eyes. This disapproves the law of:


76) The struggle for existence is a consequence of:


77) When in nucleus of some animal cell the number of chromosomes is increased or decreased, and a change takes place in the genes, then the event is called:


78) In convergent evolution:


79) The aspect most profoundly coupled with natural selection is:


80) The modern scientific theory is redefined:


81) Microevolution concerns occurrence of:


82) Distantly related organisms with similar traits have experienced:


83) "Drawin theory of Natural Selection" was objected to, because it:


84) Parallelism is:


85) The Hardy-Weinberg Law states that when two alleles are considered:


86) The Hardy-Weinberg Law allows us to predict that:


87) The change of lighter coloured variety of peppered moth, Biston betularia to its darker variety (carbonaria) is due to:


88) In evolution, change mutation occurs in:


89) Genetic drift is most important in which situation?


90) Genetic drift is more likely to cause evolution in a small population because:


91) Selection will not eliminate a lethal recessive allele from a large population of diploid organisms because:


92) Main locus of Darwin's theory is:


93) The theory of Neo-Lamarckism is dependent on:


94) A rapidly growing population experiences increasing genetic variability because:


95) When food is distributed in such a way that an animal must spend a large part of its day wandering from one place to another to find enough to eat, what type of mating system would you expect it to have?


96) A human male who remains a bachelor is most likely to enhance his evolutionary success by altruistic behaviour towards the children of:


97) In light of the definition of evolution, which of the following is not capable of evolving?


98) Which of the following did Kettlewell conclude from his studies on industrial melansim in moths?


99) Which bird is most evolutionarily successful?


100) Suppose that you have a pack of 50 assorted dogs. You select the largest male and the largest female from the group, mate them, and sterilize the other members of the pack. Assuming that food supplies remain adequate, you should expect that, in the next generation of dogs:


101) What is petrification?


102) The main dictate / s of Lamarck's theory is / are:


103) For evolutionary success, a mutation occurs in:


104) The idea of natural selection as the fundamental process of evolutionary change was reached by:


105) Darwin was influenced by one of the following in proposing the theory of his natural selection:


106) Natural selection acts on an organism:


107) Micro-evolution changes:


108) Industrial melanism is an example of:


109) Role of mutation in evolution is:


110) One of the following is obtained by artificial selection:


111) The frequency of a mutant gene in a population is expected to increase if the gene is:


112) The term isolating mechanism was coined by:


113) Who is known as father of evolution?


114) The evolution resulting in the formation of new species is known as:


115) Macroevolution operates above species level and results in the establishment of:


116) In speciation which of the following is most important:


117) Drawin's finches are:


118) Which of the following statement is false?


119) Two accessory processes which contribute towards the occurrence of evolution are:


120) ______ was the first person who considered the real meaning of fossils:


121) Which of the following is a matching set?


122) Class Reptilia first appears in the fossils records in:


123) The initial appearance of reptiles from amphibian ancestors to completely terrestrial habitat is an example of:


124) The complete evolution of horse has taken about:


125) What is the essence of evolution?


126) In the course of evolution:


127) The concealing type of protective mimicry is associated with:


128) Phyllopteryx equus (Australian sea horse) shows:


129) Natural selection that favours heterozygotes is called:


130) The type of selection that tends increase the amount of variance within populations is termed:


131) Condensation of the phylogenetic events and the elimination of others in the embryonic development is referred to as:


132) Theory of natural selection of Darwin was based on:


133) Persons who do hard manual work with their hands are likely to develop:


134) Modern synthetic theory of evolution is based on:


135) What is of importance for a species to survive in a changing environment:


136) The role of isolation in evolution is:


137) Being all mammals whale, dolphin, bat, monkey show important common characters but they also show conspicuous differences. This is due to the phenomenon of:


138) Darwin's theory gets much recognition because:


139) Birds and mammals in geological development of earth arose in period:


140) "Evolution can be regarded as the effect of natural selection on the continuous appearance of mutant forms." What reason would you gave to it?


141) Experimental evidence for selection bacteria by using the replica technique was demonstrated by:


142) Regarding evolution, Drawin's explanation is that:


143) Which of the following is not inheritable?


144) Organic evolution would not have taken place if:


145) Under which of the following conditions organic evolution could not have taken place:


146) Lederberg's replica plating experiment suggest:


147) Which phenomenon of evolution was best explained by Darwin?


148) A good example of mechanical isolation in plants is of:


149) Formation of high milk-yielding cows is example of:


150) According to Goldschmidt's classification, evolution of subspecies or geographic races is known as:


151) A scientist kept 80 generations of Drosophila in darkness, even after that the first flies had normal eyes. This disapproves the law of:


152) Genetic drift:


153) Who considered that gene is the vehicle of inheritance and discontinuous variations could be inherited through genes?


154) Who proposed the concept of intraspecific and interspecific struggle?


155) Which one of the following is the best example of an evolutionary change in a speices of an organism?


156) Darwinism is based on:


157) The convergent evolution of two species is usually associated with:


158) A detailed classification of isolating mechanisms was provided by:


159) The isolation caused due to differences in the habit of organisms such as food and physiological requirements is called:


160) A post-mating isolating mechanism in which the development of hybrid zygote is often irregular and may end at any stage between fertilization and adulthood, is known as:


161) _________ isolation refers to the barriers to mating among the individuals of different species in their courtship behaviour:


162) Mutation, natural selection, genetic drift and emigration are considered to be essential factors of evolution. The statement that best explains genetic drift is:


163) Neo-Darwinism do not appreciate the role in evolution of:


164) Which of the following statement is false?


165) The barriers which check the free exchange of genes between populations (subspecies) are called:


166) Galapagos islands in Pacific ocean on the west coast of South America is a chain of:


167) In addition to the other books, Darwin also wrote:


168) One of the following plants is tolerant to selenium:


169) When a hybrid produces sterile or infertile offspring, it is known as:


170) Distribution of land snails in Hawaiians island affords an example of:


171) Which of the following is a post-mating isloating mechanism?


172) Point out the pre-mating isolating mechanism from the following:


173) Penguins occur at south pole while north pole has polar bears and not penguins. Why?


174) Chinese women used to keep their feet enclosed in iron shoes for many years so that their feet remain small in size. Is this character passed on to the next generation?


175) Penguin is a bird that lost the use of its wings by not flying. Such statement would express the views of:


176) An Indian and a Japanese though differing in physical features resemble each other precisely at the level of:


177) The mule is a hybrid of:


178) The hybrid zygotes produced in fishes fail to cleave and develop properly. It is due to:


179) Who wrote essay on Population?


180) Lederberg and Lederberg are famous for their work on:


181) Genetic drift is shown by:


182) Maximum endemism occurs in:


183) New species develops in a spatially isolated population. It is an example of:


184) Formation of new species due to sudden genetic isolation is:


185) Bio-indicator of underground water is:


186) What is the role of isolation in evolution?


187) What is a species found in different geographical areas known as?


188) Carnivores developed retractile claws for:


189) Payne (1911) kept Drosophila in dark for a number of generations:


190) Harrison developed melanic moth variety by:


191) Genetic drift, or changes in allelic frequency due to chance factors, occurs in populations that are very:


192) An isolated population of humans, with approximately equal numbers of blue-eyed and brown-eyed individual was decimated by an earthquake. Only a few brown-eyed people remained to form the next generation. This kind of change in the gene pool is called a:


193) Genetic drift occurs when a few individuals of a species colonize an island. This particular phenomenon is known as:


194) A new mutation spreads from one population to another by means of:


195) If a new allele suddenly becomes very abundant in a population, most likely it is:


196) A plant population that reproduces by self-pollination is an extreme example of:


197) Natural selection is best defined as occuring when the environment causes:


198) Microevolution can be measured by comparing observed allelic frequencies with those predicted by:


199) Diversity in the type of beaks of finches adapted to different feeding habits on the Galapagos Islands, as observed by Darwin, provides evidence for:


200) Species occurring in different geographical areas are called as:


201) An interesting modification of flower shape for insect pollination occurs in some orchids in which a male insect mistakes the pattern on the orchid flower for the female of his species and tries to copulate with it, thereby pollinating the flower. This phenomenon is called:


202) Genetic drift operates only in:


203) What is the most important factor for the success of animal population?


204) Correct statement about failure of hybrid formation is:


205) Which of the following is not explained by Lamarckism:


206) Lamarckian theory deals with:


207) DDT is not effective on mosquitoes because:


208) de Vries theory of mutation is:


209) Organic evolution means:


210) Following was contribution of Herbert Spencer:


211) Neo-Darwinism is based on:


212) Mammals and birds arose from reptiles during which period:


213) Neo-Darwinism deals with:


214) Drawin's theory is mainly based on:


215) The basis of Neo-Lamarckism is:


216) Which is related to reproductive isolation?


217) Theory of pangenesis was given by:


218) Phenomenon of industrial melanism demonstrates:


219) Darwin wrote "Origin of Species" in:


220) The animal that explains industrial melanism is:


221) Lederberg's replica experiment explains:


222) Gene pool of a population tends to remain stable if the population is large, without large scale mutations, without migration and with:


223) Naturalist who sailed round the world in ship Beagle was:


224) The theory that environment can bring about changes in individuals was proposed by:


225) Darwin's theory states that:


226) The pioneers in the field of 'Organic evolution' are:


227) Fore-coming generations are less adaptive than these parental generations due to:


228) Darwin's theory of pangenesis shows similarity with theory of inheritance of acquired characters, then what shall be correct according to it?


229) Frequency of a allele in a isolated population may change due to:


230) In Lederberg's replica plating experiment what shall be first used to obtain streptomycin resistant bacteria strain?


231) Industrial melanism is an example of:


232) Which one of the following describes correctly the homologous structure?


233) Darwin in his "Natural Selection Theory" did not believe in any role of which one of the following in organic evolution?


234) Mule is a product of:


235) According to modern synthetic theory of evolution, organic evolution depends upon:


236) The most likely reason for the development of resistance against pesticides in insects damaging a crop is:


237) Geographic and reproductive isolation bring about:


238) The term species was coined by:


239) Which of the following is called Sewall-Wright effect?


240) de Vries gave his mutation theory on organic evolution while working on:


241) Which of the following evidences does not favour the Lamarckian concept of inheritance of acquired characters?


242) Survival of the fittest was given by:


243) Using imprints from a plate with complete medium and carrying bacterial colonies, you can select streptomycin resistant mutants and prove that such mutations do not orginate as adaptation. These imprints needs to be used:


244) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is known to be affected by gene flow genetic drift, mutation, genetic recombination and:


245) At a particular locus, frequency of "A" allele is 0.6 and that of a 'a' is 0.4. What would be the frequency of heterozygotes in a random mating population at equilibrium?


246) In random mating population in equilibrium, which of the following brings about a change in gene frequency in a non directional manner?


247) The biogenetic law of Haeckel is:


248) Which of the following statement is correct?


249) The objections to Darwin's theory of natrual selection is / are:


250) Evolutionary history of an organism is known as:


251) Which of the following disproved experimentally the concept of inheritance of acquired characters?


252) The Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium was based on the following:


253) Peppered moth (Biston betularia) is an example of:


254) Darwin's finches are a good example of:


255) Micro-evolution can be best defined as the evolution:


256) Modern synthetic theory of evolution is not based on:


257) In India, human population is heavily weighed towards the younger age group as a result of:


258) Industrial melanism as observed in pepered moth proves that:


259) A high density of elephant population in an area can result in:


260) Adaptive radiation refers to:


261) Select the correct statement from the following:


262) One of the important consequences of geographical isolation is:


263) Which one of the following scientist's name is correctly matched with the theory put forth by him:


264) The essence of Darwinian theory about evolution is:


265) Darwin theory of natural selection was influenced by work of:


266) Natural selection is based on certain observations which are factual. They are:


267) Key concepts of Darwinian theory are:


268) The process of evolution of different species in a given geographical area starting from a point and spreading to other areas is called:


269) Huge clusters of galaxies comprise the universe. This universe is how many years old?


270) Big Bang theory explain the origin of universe. Life appeared on earth about how many years ago?


271) Analogous structures are a result of:


272) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is affected by:


273) Dinosaurs became extinct during which period:


274) The Neanderthal man with a brain seize of 1400 cc lived near East and Central Asia between:


275) The biggest dinosaurs about 20 ft in height was:


276) Which of the following is correct?


277) Lumpers tend to:


278) Reproductive isolation in sympatric speciation develops without a:


279) Which of the following is most rapid method of speciation is?


280) Common bread wheat is thought to have arisen through:


281) One of he following phenomena supports Darwin's concept of natural selection in organic evolutions. It is:


282) Natural Selection -
A. Tends to increase the characters that enhance survival and reproduction.
B. Causes adaptation.
C. Acts on an organisms phenotype.
D. Was considered as mechanism of evolution by Darwin.


283) Which one(s) is/are correct?


284) A. Fossils are remains of hard parts of life forms in Rock.
B. A study of fossils in different sedimentary layers indicates the geological period in which they live.
C. Radio isotopes are often used to determine the age of the fossils.
D. Study of fossils is called palaenotology.


285) Which one(s) is/are correct?


286) Darwinian Variations are


287) Select the correct statement(s).
A. The essence of Darwinian theory about evolution is natural selection.
B. The rate of appearance of new forms is not linked to the life cycle or the life span.
C. Adaptative ability is not inherited.
D. Mutation is random and directionless.


288) A. Adaptive ability is inherited.
B. Adaptive ability has a genetic basis.
C. Fitness is the end result of the ability to adapt and get selected by nature.


289) Evolution -
A. Is descent with modification.
B. Is gradual for Darwin.
C. Is a change, in the frequency of an allele within a population, caused by differential reproduction in response to local environmental conditions.
D. Is irreversible.


290) Which of the following are necessary for evolution by natural selection to take place?
I. Offsprings resemble their parents more than other individuals in the population.
II. Differences among individuals exist and lead to different numbers of successful offspring being produced.
III. Individuals adjust their development depending on the environment.
IV. Every individual has a desire to have many offsprings.
V. Populations tend to grow faster than their food supplies.


291) Which one(s) is/are correct?
A. Thomas Malthus is well known for his book on populations.
B. The work of Thomas Malthus on population did not influence Darwin.
C. There must be a genetic basis for getting selected and to evolve.
D. All the finches on the Galapagos islands are descended from a common ancestor.


292) All are true regarding the genetic drift except


293) Select the correct statement(s).


294) A. Amphibians evolved into reptiles.
B. Fish with stout and strong fins could move on land and go back to water. This was about 350 mya.
C. About 65 mya (in cretaceous period) the dinosaurs suddenly disappeared from the earth.
D. Archeopteryx is the connecting link between birds and reptiles.


295) First organisms that invaded land were


296) Psilophyton gave the origin to -
A. Horse tails.
B. Ferns.
C. Ginkgos.
D. Conifers.


297) The first vascular plants were represented by an extinct group


298) Zosterophyllum gave the origin to


299) Select the correct statement(s) -
A. Microbial experiment shows the pre-existing advatangous mutations when selected will result in the observation of new phenotypes. Over few generation this would result in speciation.
B. Neanderthal fossils represent a human relative.
C. In 1938, a fish caught in South Africa happened to be a coelacanth (lobe fins) which was thought to be extinct. These animals evolved into the first amphibian living on both land and water.
D. Lichens can be used as water pollution indicators.
E. Alfred Wallace, a naturalist, who worked in Malay Archipelago (present Indonesia) has also come to similar conclusion on natural selection as reached by Darwinism.


300) Existence of coal/petroleum can be known from the study of


301) The origin of angiosperms took place during


302) Tasmanian wolf is a marsupial while wolf is a placental mammal. This shows


303) Adaptive radiation refers to


304) Home erectus -
A. had a large brain around 900 c.c.
B. probably ate meat.
C. appeared about 1.5 mya year ago.
D. evolved from H. habilis.


305) Which of the following is/are incorrect about Neanderthal man?
A. has large brain around 900 c.c.
B. lived in near east and central Asia between 100000 - 40000 years back.
C. used hides to protect their body and buried their dead.
D. has no religious feeling.


306) Which one(s) is/are correct of Australopithecus?
A. They lived in East African grassland.
B. They hunted with stone weapons.
C. They essentially ate fruits.
D. They were transitional stages between the apes and humans.


307) Which is the correct chronological sequence of human evolution


308) Which is the correct option of evolutionary history from reptiles to Dinosaurs


309) The sequence of origin of life may be


310) In the Hardy-Weinberg's equation the homozygous dominant individuals in a population are represented by


311) Given below are two statements each with one or more blanks. Select the option which correctly fills up the blanks in the statements.
Statements :
In a mixed population, those that can better-adapt, ___(i)___ and increase in population size. No variant is ____(ii)____ wiped out.
Similarly, excess use of herbicides, pesticides, etc., has only resulted in selection of resistant varieties in a much ____(iii)____ time scale. This is also true for microbes against which we employ antibiotics or drugs against eukaryotic organisms/cell. Hence, resistant organisms/cells are appearing in a time scale of months or years and not centuries.
These are examples of evolution by ____(iv)____ action. This also tells us that evolution is not a ____(v)_____ process in the sense of determinism. It is a ____(iv)____ process based on chance events in nature and chance _____(vii)_____ in the organisms.


312) Which of the following statements is true about Charles Darwin?


313) Charles Darwin concluded that the 13 species of finches on the Galapagos Islands


314) The sequence of events in geographic speciation is most likely to be


315) Which of the following is correct?


316) The following are some major events in the early history of life -
P. first heterotrophic prokaryotes.
Q. first genes.
R. first eukaryotes.
S. first autotrophic prokaryotes.
T. first animals.
Which answer below places these events in the correct order?


317) Three form of the peppered moth, Biston betularia, namely the melanic form, the pale form, and a form intermediate between those two, are found in Britain today. The melanic form was first observed in 1848 and its frequency subsequently increased. This is thought to be the result of


318) An inter-breeding population of finches became separated geographically, forming two isolated groups. Each group then became subject to different selective pressures. One group was then introduced into the habitat of the other.
Which one of the following would determine whether they now formed two distinct species?


319) In which of the following situations would evolution be slowest for an inter-breeding population?


320) Which of the following has evolved mainly as a result of artificial selection?


321) An example of process of evolution of different species in a given geographical area starting from a common point and radiating to other areas of geography can be


322) Genetic drift is a random change in allele frequencies. Sometimes, the change in allele frequencies is so different that the new sample of population becomes a different species. This is known as


323) Which of the following are the examples of adaptive radiation?
A. Wombat, marsupial rat, Flying phalanger.
B. Darwin's finches.
C. Different placental mammals in Australia.
D. Placental wolf and Tasmanian wolf.


324) The peppered moth Biston betularia with dull gray or white colour was abundant in England before industrial revolution. During post industrialization period, the tree trunks became dark due to smoke and soot and the black coloured variants of the moth became more abundant. The black color of the moths was due to


325) Imagine a population of 100 snails in which shell colour is controlled by two alleles : B (black) and b (yellow) 20 of the snails are yellow (b/b) and 80 are black (B/B or B/b). Of the 80 black snails, 30 are homozygous and 50 are heterozygous.
A. How many of the loci for this gene are occupies by the B allele?
B. What is the allelic frequency of B?
C. Assuming sexual reproduction with random mating, no gene flow and no selection, what will be the frequency of yellow snails in the next generation of the population?
D. What is the total number of loci for the gene for shell colour in this population?


326) Mendel described the frequency of ____I_____ for the offspring of a single ____II____; Hardy and Weinberg described the frequency of _____III______ for an entire ___IV___.


327) Assume that allele C occurs at 60 percent of the loci and allele c at 40 percent of the loci for a particular gene in a population. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of genotype C/C in the next generation will be ___I___ ; the frequency of genotype C/c will be ____II____; and the frequency of genotype c/c will be ___III____.


328) An isolated population of humans, with approximately equal numbers of blue-eyed and brown-eyed individuals, was decimated an earthquake. Only a few brown-eyed people remained to form the next generation. This kind of change in the gene pool is called


329) A potential danger to a population that has been greatly reduced in number is the


330) Genetic drift occurs when a few individuals of a species colonize an island. This particular phenomenon is known as


331) A new mutation spreads from one population to another by means of


332) If a new allele suddenly becomes very abundant in a population, most likely it is


333) I. The loss or gain of alleles in a population due to emigration or immigration is known as _________; it decreases genetic differences among populations.
II. Nonrandom mating of individuals within a population is called _________ and can cause deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg prediction.
III. When the environment causes a change in the gene pool by controlling reproductive success according to genotype it is called_________.


334) The Darwinian fitness can be estimated by


335) Which of the following best characterizes an adaptive radiation?


336) Which of the following ways is most likely to decrease the genetic diversity in a population?


337) The concept that species have changed over long periods of time is known as


338) What was the most significant trend in the evolution of modern man (Homo sapiens) from his ancestors?


339) Mark the correct statement


340) What is true regarding industrialization in England


341) The resistant varieties are being evolved in much lesser time than before. It is due to


342) Read the following three statements (A to C) and mark the most appropriate option -
A. The fitness in the 'survival of the fittest' is based upon the characteristics that are inherited.
B. Darwin's variations were small and directional.
C. The fitness is the end result of ability to adapt.


343) Which of the following factor does not affect Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium


344) In case of natural selection when more individuals acquire the peripheral character value at both ends of the distribution curve. The selection is called


345) The two key concepts of Darwinian theory of evolution are


346) Being the hominid, the first human like creature was called


347) Mark the correct statement


348) The most apparent change during the evolutionary history of Homo sapiens is traced in


349) The concept that formed the basis of Lamarck's theory of evolution and later disproved experimentally was


350) Which of the following statements are true for genetic drift?
I. It upsets the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
II. It operates only in small population.
III. It is responsible for preserving certain genes.
IV. It is responsible for eliminating certain genes.


351) Population genetics can provide insight into all of the following, except


352) Darwin believed that a giraffe has a long neck because


353) According to Darwin, two different areas within a continent have different species because they have different


354) Both C. Darwin and A. R. Wallace developed, independently of each other, the theory of evolution by natural selection. Yet Darwin is given credit for the theory because he


355) Australia has unusual organisms because their evolution for the past 38 million years has been


356) Which of the following statements would Darwin most likely disagree?


357) Among individuals, the ultimate source of heritable differences fueling natural selection is


358) The classification of bacterial species does not fit the usual definition of species. This is because bacteria


359) For Bateson mutation is discontinuous variation Evolution for Darwin was gradual while de Vries believed mutation caused species and hence called it


360) The first vertebrates to colonize land were


361) Ancient mammals enjoyed a release from competition when the dinosaurs became extinct. Should humans work to ensure that such releases from competition continue to occur for us or for other species?


362) Early mammals were


363) If the Neanderthals are not the direct ancestors of humans, is it still possible for humans and Neanderthals to be related?


364) You are shown a skull from one of the Australopithecus species. How can you tell that is not from a modern human?


365) Which word does not describe humans?


366) An Australian mole is actually a marsupial rather than a placental mammal like the North American or European mole. The two animals are similar in appearance because


367) Scientists believe that over millions of years, Australian mammals have become very different from other mammals as a direct result of


368) The following list includes three Australian marsupial mammals and three placental mammals which occupy similar ecological niches in other continents of the world. 1. great red kangaroo 2. flying squirrel 3. sloth 4. phalanger 5. koala bear 6. deer.
Which of the following correctly pairs each marsupial with the equivalent placental?


369) Biogenetic law as given be Haeckel states that


370) The origin of mammals like reptiles occurred in


371) Stanley Miller had put the Oparin-Haldane theory to test in 1953 by creating in the laboratory, the probable conditions of the primitive earth. In the experiment, simple amino acids were synthesized from which of the following mixtures as observed after 18 days?


372) The biologist who has been called the "Darwin of the 20th century", was


373) Evolution of different species in a given area starting from a point and spreading to other geographical areas is known as


374) Which one of the following options gives one correct example each of convergent evolution and divergent evolution?


375) What was the most significant trend in the evolution of modern man (Homo sapiens) from his ancestors?


376) The extinct human who lived 1,00,000 to 40,000 years ago, in Europe, Asia and parts of Africa. With short stature, heavy eyebrows, retreating fore heads, large jaws with heavy teeth, stocky bodies, a lumbering gait and stooped posture was


377) Which statement is best supported by fossil records?


378) Which statement about the rates of evolution live on the same planet


379) A large population of cockroaches was sprayed with a newly developed, fast-acting insecticide. The appearance of some cockroaches that are resistant to this insecticide supports the concept that


380) Differences between the members of a population will most likely be passed to future generations if they are


381) How does natural selection operate to cause change in a population?


382) Many animals exist today in a form that is almost identical to the form they had a million years ago. What is the most probable explanation for this lack of evolutionary change?


383) Which situation would most likely result in the highest rate of natural selection?


384) Which statements best illustrates a rapid biological adaptation that has actually occurred?


385) According to Darwin, the organic evolution is due to


386) The eye of octopus and eye of cat show different patterns of structure, yet they perform similar function. This is an example of


387) Variation in gene frequencies within populations can occur by chance rather than by natural selection. This is referred to as


388) The process by which organisms with different evolutionary history evolve similar phenotypic adaptation in response to a common environmental challenge, is called


389) The tendency of population to remain in genetic equilibrium may be disturbed by


390) In a population consisting of 800 individuals of an insect species, there are only two alleles for the gene locus that determines eye color. One allele is dominant to the other. There are 250 homozygous dominant, 400 heterozygous and 150 homozygous recessive individuals. What is the approximate frequency of the recessive allele in the gene pool of this population?


391) In a population of 1000 individuals 360 belong to genotype AA, 480 to Aa and the remaining 160 to aa. Based on this data, the frequency of allele A in the population is


392) Forelimbs of cat, lizard used in walking; forelimbs of whale used in swimming and forelimbs of bats used in flying are an example of


393) Industrial Melanism is an


394) The neanderthals can be attributed with all of the following characteristics, except


395) Which of the following is not an example of molecular evidence in favour of evolution?


396) Choose the incorrect statement.


397) The first human-like hominid was called


398) Oparin and Haldane proposed


399) Choose the wrong pair.


400) In Miller's experiment, the following was not the part of starting chemicals


401) Fossils act as evidences of organic evolution. Which one of these features does not justify the feature of fossils?


402) Person suffering from sickle cell anaemia normally do not suffer from


403) Which of the following had the smallest brain capacity?


404) Which is the most common mechanism of genetic variation in the population of a sexually reproducing organism?


405) A population will not exist in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium if


406) The wings of a bird and the wings of an insect are


407) Industrial Melanism is an example of


408) In order for new species to develop, there must be a change in the


409) The concept that new varieties of organisms are still evolving is best supported by the


410) Two organisms are closely related and the thought to share a similar evolutionary history. If this assumption is correct, these organisms most likely have


411) Which statement is not part of the concept of natural selection?


412) Which factor could be the cause of the other three in an animal species?


413) In a population of 5000 individuals, 450 individuals show a recessive trait. What will be number of heterozygous individual in this population?


414) Which of the following structures is homologous to the wing of a bird?


415) Following are the two statements regarding the origin of life -
(a). The earliest organisms that appeared on the earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes.
(b). The first autotrophic organisms were the chemoautotrophs that never released oxygen. Of the above statements which one of the following options is correct?


416) Analogous structures are a result of


417) Genetic drift operates in


418) In Hardy-Weinberg equation, the frequency of heterozygous individuals is represented by


419) The chronological order of human evolution from early to the recent is


420) Which one of the following is the correct sequence of events in the origin of life?
I. Formation of protobionts
II. Synthesis of organic monomers
III. Synthesis of organic polymers
IV. Formation of DNA-based genetic systems


421) In terms of evolutionary origin, which one of the following is correct?


422) Mechanism of organic evolution proposed by Hugo de Vries is based upon