Practice Test


1) The concept of judicial review has been borrowed from the Constitution of-


2) Astha, who is a very good painter, is also a patient in a mental asylum, who, at intervals, is of
sound mind.
During one of these intervals, she entered into a relationship with Lopamudra to paint a picture of
her for a specified amount. She, however, asked Lopamudra to pay her the entire amount in
advance. One month later, on the day of delivery of the painting, Astha refused to perform the
contract saying that she suffers from insanity. Can Lopamudra force performance?
Principle: A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract if, at the time
when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its
effect upon his interests.


3) Principle: Mere silence as to the facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a
contract is not a fraud, unless the circumstances of the case are such that, on close examination it
is found to be the duty of the person keeping silent to speak, or unless his silence is, in itself,
equivalent to speech.
Facts: X sells by auction to Y, a horse which X knows to be of unsound state of mind. X says
nothing to Y


4) Agni enters into a contract with Tanuj whereby Tanuj will supply Agni with 10 grams of cocaine for
a specified amount. Is the contract void?
Principle: If the consideration or object of an agreement is forbidden by law, or is of such a nature
that would defeat the provisions of any law, or is fraudulent, or is injurious to the person or property
of another or, the Court regards it as immoral, or opposed to public policy, then the object or
consideration shall be deemed unlawful. Every agreement of which the object or consideration is
unlawful is void.


5) If the tax rate increases with the higher level of income, it is called -


6) Which State provided separate reservation for Muslims and Christians in the State Backward
Classes List in 2007?


7) A fake doctor operated on a man for internal piles by cutting them out with an kitchen ordinary
knife. The man died of haemorrhage.


8) Dr Mortimer performed a kidney operation upon James for removal of kidney stones. James was
already affected by HIV. Dr Mortimer had warned James of all the possible risks. James, out of his
own volition, decided to undertake the risks and signed a bond certifying the same. James died of
haemorrhage as a result of the operation


9) The party to a contract has been obtained by Undue Influence, Fraud or
Misrepresentation, the contract is-


10) In kidnapping, the consent of a minor is-


11) Has Vinodji committed theft?


12) is Vinodji is guilty of criminal damage ?


13) If Vinodji had discovered the painting before leaving Subhadra's house rather than at the
rubbish dump, would he have been guilty of theft in this case?


14) Is Champi guilty of theft?


15) Which of the following propositions could be inferred from the facts and the rules specified


16) Public holidays are declared under


17) Principle No Person shall be prosecuted for the same offence twice.
Facts: Rajiv Chanda was driving his BMW when he drove the car on the pathway and crushed three
people to death. Due to lack of evidence he is acquitted, now the prosecution finds eye witness and
evidence against him. They want to prosecute him again.


18) Why is Parineeti justified in challenging the sale transaction?


19) Animesh can be allowed to recover the money only if he can show that-


20) In order to defend the sale, Kumud will need to show that-


21) The concept of judicial review has been borrowed from the Constitution of:


22) Astha, who is a very good painter, is also a patient in a mental asylum, who, at intervals, is of sound mind.
During one of these intervals, she entered into a relationship with Lopamudra to paint a picture of her for a specified amount. She, however, asked Lopamudra to pay her the entire amount in advance. One month later, on the day of delivery of the painting, Astha refused to perform the contract saying that she suffers from insanity. Can Lopamudra force performance?
Principle: A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract if, at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interests.


23) Principle: Mere silence as to the facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a contract is not a fraud, unless the circumstances of the case are such that, on close examination it is found to be the duty of the person keeping silent to speak, or unless his silence is, in itself, equivalent to speech.
Facts: X sells by auction to Y, a horse which X knows to be of unsound state of mind. X says nothing to Y.


24) Agni enters into a contract with Tanuj whereby Tanuj will supply Agni with 10 grams of cocaine for a specified amount. Is the contract void?
Principle: If the consideration or object of an agreement is forbidden by law, or is of such a nature that would defeat the provisions of any law, or is fraudulent, or is injurious to the person or property of another or, the Court regards it as immoral, or opposed to public policy, then the object or consideration shall be deemed unlawful. Every agreement of which the object or consideration is unlawful is void.


25) If the tax rate increases with the higher level of income, it is called


26) Which State provided separate reservation for Muslims and Christians in the State Backward Classes List in 2007?


27) A fake doctor operated on a man for internal piles by cutting them out with an kitchen ordinary knife. The man died of haemorrhage.


28) Dr Mortimer performed a kidney operation upon James for removal of kidney stones. James was already affected by HIV. Dr Mortimer had warned James of all the possible risks. James, out of his own volition, decided to undertake the risks and signed a bond certifying the same. James died of haemorrhage as a result of the operation.


29) The party to a contract has been obtained by Undue Influence, Fraud or Misrepresentation, the contract is


30) In kidnapping, the consent of a minor is


31) Has Vinodji committed theft?


32) Is Vinodji is guilty of criminal damage?


33) If Vinodji had discovered the painting before leaving Subhadra's house rather than at the rubbish dump, would he have been guilty of theft in this case?


34) Is Champi guilty of theft?


35) Which of the following propositions could be inferred from the facts and the rules specified?


36) Public holidays are declared under


37) Principle No Person shall be prosecuted for the same offence twice.
Facts: Rajiv Chanda was driving his BMW when he drove the car on the pathway and crushed three people to death. Due to lack of evidence he is acquitted, now the prosecution finds eye witness and evidence against him. They want to prosecute him again.


38) Why is Parineeti justified in challenging the sale transaction?


39) Animesh can be allowed to recover the money only if he can show that


40) In order to defend the sale, Kumud will need to show that


41) Which of the following is correct?


42) Which of the following is correct?


43) Whoever induces or attempts to induce a candidate, or voter, to believe that he, or any person, who he is interested in, will become, or will be rendered, an object of divine displeasure, or spiritual censure, commits the offence of:


44) Sajjan Singh, advanced money to his step-son, Ghantilal while Ghantilal was a minor. Ghantilal, however, looks upon Sajjan Singh as his own father. When Ghantilal came of age, Sajjan Singh obtained, by misuse of parental influence, from Ghantilal, a bond for a greater amount than the sum due in respect of the advance. The contract clearly appears to be unconscionable. Upon whom will the burden of proof rest to prove the element of undue influence?
Principle: A contract is said to be induced by undue influence where the relations subsisting between the parties are such that one of the parties is in a position to dominate the will of the other and uses that position to obtain an unfair advantage over the other.


45) A minor's agreement is void. This proposition was made in which of the following cases?


46) The Government imposed a cap on the number of text messages sent per day, from every sim card, to 20, with immediate effect. These restrictions are to remain in force for 15 days. This action was taken against the backdrop of the exodus of north-eastern people from major cities of the country following a tide of rumours spread by text and multimedia messages that people hailing from the north-eastern states would be attacked to avenge a recent ethnic violence in one of the north-eastern states. Companies that were completely dependent upon this mode of communication for customer outreach protested against this cap on messages saying that it was infringing upon their freedom of speech and expression. Decide if it is an infringement on the freedom of speech and expression of the citizens.
Principle: All citizens shall have the right
(i) to freedom of speech and expression;
(ii) to assemble peacefully and without arms;
(iii) to form associations or unions;
(iv) to move freely throughout the territory of India;
(v) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and;
(vi) omitted;
(vii) to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
However, the exercise of these rights is subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by the State.


47) What is the meaning of the maxim, “ex turpi causa non oritur action”?


48) Which of these systems is followed in India?


49) The violation of which of the given rights leads to an action in torts?


50) Valkatamma was suffering from a health condition in her stomach which required her to go through a surgery that involved cutting her stomach open as per the advice of her doctor, Dr. Chembunarayan. Though the operation was successful, after a few weeks, she started suffering from an infection which was a result of her stomach being cut open for the surgery though all the reasonable precautions to avoid any such infection had been taken by the group of surgeons who operated upon her. She visited another doctor, Dr. Kuttalalingam, after the development of this infection, and he told her that even a laser surgery could have cured her stomach ailment without exposing her to the risk of infection. However, as a matter of fact, there were many doctors in the country who supported the advice given by Dr. Chembunarayan to cure her health condition, and there were many others who were of the same opinion as that of Dr. Kuttalalingam. Nevertheless, Valkatamma sued Dr. Chembunarayan. Decide.
Principle: A person is liable for the tort of negligence if he breaches a legal duty of care he owes to the plaintiff, and the plaintiff suffered a damage resulting from this breach.


51) Nitin started to drive his Tata Nano in the highway after gulping down two bottles of whiskey. Isaac was driving his Reva NXR with the headlights turned off. They collided resulting in an injury on Isaac's head. Nitin, who was highly intoxicated, had only a narrow chance to avoid the collision, but because of the high levels of alcohol in his blood, he was unable to do so. Isaac sued Nitin for negligence. Will he succeed?
Principle: A person is liable for the tort of negligence if he breaches a legal duty of care he owes to the plaintiff, and the plaintiff suffered a damage resulting from this breach.


52) During the Fresher Party of Beliaghata Law College, Saanchi pulled Aurobind's shots. Aurobind started crying because his shots had been snatched away and dicided to sue Saanchi for battery. Will Aurobind succeed in his claim?
Principle: The intentional use of force against another person without lawful justification constitutes the tort of battery.


53) Ranveer, a con-man by profession, was sitting in his lawn with some stolen books by William Shakespeare. Suddenly, his neighbour, Anushka, entered and tried to snatch away those books from him saying that they belong to her. As it turns out, she was right. Still, Ranveer sues Anushka for trespass to goods. Will he succeed?
Principle: Interference with someone's possession or enjoyment of movable property constitutes the tort of trespass of goods.


54) What is the meaning of the maxim “nemo judex in sua causa”?


55) What is a lis pendens?


56) Principle: A principal is liable for all the acts of the agent which he does in his capacity as an agent.
Facts: A Bollywood actor turned producer Balwan Khan makes a movie 'MAA ONE', he takes loan from a money lender Mr. Danjay Sutt, the film releases and as expected is a flop, the producer could not return the money, Danjay Sutt does not goes through the legal channel but asks Kancha Cheena to recover the debt on his behalf. In the process of recovery Kancha Cheena damages the property and manhandles Balwan Khan. Balwan Khan files case against Danjay Sutt. The money lender says he was ignorant of the collection tactics of Kancha Cheena, Is he liable in case?


57) Prateek, who is Prakha's younger brother, under the influence of madness, attempts to kill Sachan, who is Prakha's boyfriend. Prakha, not knowing howto react, and seeing Sachan helpless and on the verge of being murdered, hits on Prateek's head with an antique metal vase. Prateek dies on the spot. Can Prakha claim the right of private defence of body?
Principle 1: Every person has a right to defend his own body, and the body of any other person, against any offence affecting the human body. Nothing is an offence which is done in the exercise of the right of private defence
Principle 2: The right of private defence of the body extends to the vo??uritary causing of death or of any other harm to the assailant, if the offence reasonably causes the apprehension that death, or grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such assault. Also, if the assault is with the intention of committing rape, gratifying unnatural lust, kidnapping or abducting, or wrongfully confining a person under circumstances which may reasonably cause him to apprehend that he will be unable to have recourse to the public authorities for his release, he will have the right of private defence of the body extending to causing of death.
Principle 3: Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, at the time of doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is incapable of knowing the nature of the act.


58) Anjali ,embarking on a one month trip to Venice entrusts her Pomeranian to Tina, the owner of a kennel, ti?? Anjali returns from her vacations. Anjali pays Tina to take care of her Pomeranian. Tina carries the Pomeranian to a pet-shop owner, and sells it. Has Tina committed theft?


59) Avantik gives his gold chain to Nikhil, a jeweller, for repairs. Nikhil carries it to his shop. After the gold chain have been repaired, Avantik defaults on the payment. Nikhil refuses to deliver back the gold chain, retains them lawfully as a security for the debt. Avantik, who was aware that Nikhil was retaining the gold chain as a security for his debt, enters the shop openly, and takes the gold chain by force out of Nikhil's possession, and takes it away. Has Avantik committed theft?


60) Principle: When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that person to such an act or abstinence, he is said to have made a proposal.
Fact: Ramchandra telegraphed to Shyam Sunder, writing: “Will you sell me your Rolls Royce car? Telegram the lowest cash price.” Shyam Sunder also replied by telegram: “Lowest price for car is Rs. 20 lakh.” Ramanuj immediately sent his consent through telegram stating: “I agree to buy the car for Rs. 20 lakh asked by you” Shyam Sunder refused to sell the car.


61) Principle: Any direct physical interference with goods in somebody's possession without lawful justification is called trespass of goods.
Facts: Z purchased a car from a person who had no title to it and sent it to a garage for repair. X believing wrongly that the car was his, removed it from the garage.


62) Jalebi Bai conducted Nitinnatyam lessons in her flat which was just above Chameli's flat. Chameli suffered from migraine and the constant thud of people's feet from the ceiling of her house gave her severe headaches. Chameli decided to suejalebi Bai for nuisance. Will she succeed?
Principle: Whoever causes unreasonable interference to the right of another over his property and space is causing nuisance.


63) Tanvi and Ashrita were residents of Jahnvi Devi Society. Ashrita has been into the habit of practising Nitinnatyam before sunrise each morning since the past 25 years. She plays loud dance beats in her music system each morning to help her practice. The loud noise emanating from her music system disturbs Tanvi she can take it no more and decides to sue Ashrita for nuisance.
Principle: Whoever causes unreasonable interference to the right of another over his property and space is causing nuisance.


64) Principle: Only Parliament or State Legislatures have the authority to enact laws on their own. No law made by the State can take away a person's fundamental right.
Facts: Parliament enacted a law, which according to a group of lawyers is violating the fundamental rights of traders. A group of lawyers files a writ petition challenging the Constitutional validity of the statute seeking relief to quash the statute and further direct Parliament to enact a new law.


65) Who is the Legal Advisor to the Government of a State in India?


66) In law, the term “neighbour” means:


67) Which of the following is entrusted with a statutory duty of laying down the standards of professional conduct and etiquette for advocates in India?


68) Which of the following is the oldest High Court in India?


69) What does the legal term Caveat Emptor refer to?


70) Which of the following had the most profound influence in framing the Indian Constitution?


71) Legal Principle: Any agreement in restraint of trade, whether partial or total, is void.
Factual Situation: Mr. A joins Prima Info Corp Ltd. in June 2012 under an employment agreement for three years. One of the clauses of the agreement stipulates that the employee shall not join any other rival corporation for a period of three years. However, in the month of December 2012, Mr. A is found guilty of sexually harassing Ms. B, who is also an employee at Prima Info. The management of Prima Info terminates Mr. A’s employment for violation of the Office Conduct and Protection against Sexual Harassment guidelines. He subsequently sought a job with Bona Systems Corp Ltd. However, Prima Info came to know of Mr. A’s intention to join Bona Systems and sued him for an injunction in court citing the employment agreement.
Decide whether Mr. A would be able to secure his job opportunity?


72) Legal Principles:
I. The tort of conversion is an act, of willful interference, without lawful justification, with any chattel (goods) in a manner inconsistent with the right of another, whereby that other is deprived of the use and possession of it.
II. Whoever intending to take any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person’s consent, moves that property out of his or her possession, is said to commit theft.
Factual Situation: A loads his perishable goods on a ship (owned by B) for transit from London to Kolkata. For many months, nothing was heard of the ship and it was presumed to be wrecked. However, it was later discovered that the ship had developed some problems and had got lost in high seas and finally reached a port in India and the goods were unloaded in B’s warehouse in Chennai. B did not care to inform A about it and over the period of time, the goods perished.
What is B liable for?


73) Legal Principles:
I. The tort of conversion is an act, of willful interference, without lawful justification, with any chattel (goods) in a manner inconsistent with the right of another, whereby that other is deprived of the use and possession of it.
II. Whoever intending to take any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person’s consent, moves that property out of his or her possession, is said to commit theft.
Factual Situation: A owns a Gran Torino 1972 model. It is stolen by the local neighborhood boys which include B, C and D. They further sell it to E, who lives in the neighboring town, who is unaware of the theft and is a bona fide purchaser. F, a friend of A, and E’s neighbor immediately recognizes the Gran Torino to be A’s and on finding an opportunity, he drives the Gran Torino off E's garage. However, he meets an accident on his way to A’s house in which the car is also severely damaged and rendered useless.
What remedies can E avail?


74) Factual Situation: In a situation similar to the one in the movie Delhi Belly, three young men accidently happen to possess a purse full of diamonds. They visit a jeweler to ascertain the diamonds' value. The jeweler takes the diamond to an ante-room for examination. Taking advantage of the young men’s inadequacy of knowledge, he tells them that he could offer Rs. 10 lakh for the diamonds, whereas the actual worth of the same could have been Rs. 30 lakh or more. For a moment, the men take Rs. 10 lakh from the jeweler but'then seem to gather the actual worth of the diamonds may be much more than Rs. 10 lakhs and thus proceed to return the money and claim the diamonds back, which the jeweler refuses to return.
Which situation in law are we dealing with?


75) Legal Principle: Whoever dishonestly, or with a malice or evil intention takes away movable property from the possession of the owner is said to have committed theft.
Factual Situation: Sundar is a noted teak smuggler. One day he entered into a government reserved teak forests and ordered his men to cut 250 trees for him. However, in the meanwhile, the police entered into the reserved forest and arrested him for theft. He was prosecuted for the same. However, he pleads not guilty.
Is Sundar liable for theft?


76) Legal Principle: Whoever enters into or upon the property in the possession of another, with intent to commit an offence or to intimidate or annoy any person in possession of the property and remains there with intent thereby to intimidate or annoy another person or with intent to commit an offence is guilty of criminal trespass.
Factual Situation: Samir enters into the house of Sarita, an unmarried major girl, to carry on intimate relations with her on her invitation and information that her family members are absent. However, while escaping, he was caught by her uncle who accused him of criminal trespass.
Is Samir liable for criminal trespass?


77) Legal Principle: An offer is effective only when it is communicated to the offeree. Until the offer is made known to the offeree there can be no acceptance and no contract.
Factual Situation: Shyam Bhai sent his servant Ramu to search his missing dog Tuffy. In the meantime Shyam Bhai advertised in the newspaper, promising a reward of Rs. 2,500 to anyone who is able to trace the dog. Ramu brought back the dog. However, after a couple of days, Ramu came to know about the reward and tried to claim it.
Will the claim be successful?


78) Legal Principles:
I. A state may Only impose a tax on a transaction if there is a reasonable nexus between the territory of the state and the transaction.
II. Existence of a reasonable nexus is to be determined with reference to the significance of the territory of the state for a particular transaction.
Factual Situation: Bangkok imposes a tax of 22% on any commodity that passes through its territorial limits. A ship belonging to Pluto duck lines, a shipping company carrying coal, is detained when it enters into territorial waters of Bangkok and authorities say that the company should pay the tax of 22% of the value of the cargo, which is the coal. The cargo pertained to a transaction between Coal India's office in Kolkata and a buyer which is based in Malaysia. Coat India agreed to ship the coal through Pluto duck lines for a fee paid at latter’s office at Mumbai port. Tax authorities in Bangkok claimed all ships plying between Mumbai and Malaysia had to pass through the territorial waters of Bangkok for reducing journey time.
Decide:


79) Legal Principle: Time is the essence of a contract. Consent to extension of the time for the contract may be granted expressly or impliedly.
Factual Situation: Mehta is a rice merchant who works in Kolkata. Kapoor entersinto a contract with him for purchasing rice consignments worth 3 lakhs to be delivered on 17lh of September, 2014 in one batch all together. However, on the said day, Mehta delivers the rice consignment worth Rs 2 lakhs and requests Mehta to give him another 4 days to deliver the rest. Kapoor accepts the consignment but remains silent on the extension of the time. After 4 days when Mehta delivers the rest of it, Kapoor rejects saying that Mehta has breached the contract.
Decide:


80) Legal Principle: An agent has an authority (in an emergency) to do all such acts for the purpose of protecting his principal from loss as would be done by a person of ordinary prudence, in his own case, under similar circumstances.
Factual Situation: Sahil appoints Samir as his agent in Kanpur. He orders him to deliver 600 kgs of apples to Mihir who lives in Bhopal. Sahil sends the apples from Kashmir to agent Samir in Kanpur. Samir, instead of sending the same apples to Mihir sold the same apples at higher price to Prashant in Kanpur. He did this because of the bad weather and heavy rainfall, and being aware of the fact that apples would be destroyed entirely if he waits to send them to Bhopal. Now Sahil sues Samir for not sending the apples.
Decide:


81) Legal Principle: Whoever dishonestly takes away any property from the possession of another, with an intention of such taking away, without his permission, is liable for theft.
Factual Situation: Kabir, a famous gangster, moves into an apartment in Pearl district in Mumbai. There he discovers that the previous owner of the apartment had left behind a pair of beautiful ivory handled dressing table. He decides to retain it since he was in a confusion as to whom he should give it to. After 3 days, the previous owners of the dressing table got to know this and registered an FIR against Kabir for stealing their property.
Is Kabir liable?


82) Legal Principle: No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the Act charged as an offence.
Factual Situation: Param is a gambling enthusiast and is a regular visitor of several high profile casinos. The Prevention of Gambling Act comes into force on 15th May 2016 and bans all activities related to gambling including gambling in casinos. Anyone found gambling shall be punished with imprisonment up to 3 years. Param is found Gambling in Mogambo’s Casino by Inspector Bajirao on the night of 14th May at approx. 11:59 PM and is arrested.
Can Param be punished under the said law?


83) Legal Principle: No person shall be prosecuted for the same offence more than once.
Factual Situation: George arrived in India from South Africa with several gold bars. Indian Customs Act requires that any items of value be declared on arrival. Unaware of this law, George does not declare his valuables. Fie is caught by customs officials and charged under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) according to which he is fined a hefty sum of money. Subsequently judicial proceedings are initiated against him under the Customs and Excise Act. George claims that he has already been fined for the offence so there can be no judicial proceedings against him.


84) Legal Principle: Nothing is an offence which is done by a Judge when acting judicially in the exercise of any power which is, or which in good faith he believes to be, given to him by law.
Factual Situation: Justice Sikander Singh went to attend his nephew’s wedding where he criticised the Chief Minister and his party for being religiously intolerant. Fie called him names and abused him. Bhagwan Das, a party member was also present there. Incensed by the judge’s comments he files a case against him for slander. Justice Singh claims that he had said the statements in judicial capacity.


85) Legal Principle: Every partner shall indemnity the firm for any loss caused to it by his fraud in the conduct of the business of the firm.
Factual Situation: Harish and Karan entered into a partnership to run a manufacturing unit. They decided to split the profits 50-50. Karan entered into several dealings with suppliers of raw material. Unknown to Harish, Karan had pocketed a part of the money allocated for procuring raw material subsequently the raw material supplied was of a much inferior quality. The Bureau of Standards inspected the factory and found the finished product to sub-standard due to which the factory was shut down and a hefty fine was imposed on the partnership. Harish comes to know about Karan's dealings and subsequently demands that Karan pay for all the losses incurred.


86) Legal Principle: A partner may make an agreement with his partners that on ceasing to be a partner he will not carry on any business similar to that of the firm within a specified period or within specified local limits; and such agreement shall be valid if the restrictions imposed are reasonable.
Factual Situation: Mukesh, Ramesh and Mahesh are partners of an IT firm in Bengaluru. Due to personal reasons Mahesh wants to leave the partnership and move to Bhopal. The other partners did not want him to leave without signing an agreement by virtue of which he cannot work in an IT related company or job till his death. Wanting to be rid of the matter quickly, Mahesh signed the agreement.


87) The first blow by Ramesh would be considered:


88) The second blow by Ramesh:


89) The blow by Rajesh was:


90) Legal Principle: Every person has the right to defend his own body and his property against any crime affecting his body or property from aggression by another person. The right of self defense cannot be extended so as to inflict more than necessary harm. The right does not exist where a person has the time to contact public authorities.
Factual Situation: Ramesh and Rajesh were brothers embroiled in a property dispute. During the pendency of court proceedings for the settlement over the partition of their house, Rajesh along with four of his friends entered the disputed house and began to live there. Once the court decided the matter and held that Ramesh was the proper owner he entered the house and assaulted Rajesh to gain possession over the property.
The act of Ramesh constitutes:


91) Legal Principle: Whoever by words, either spoken or intended to be read, or by signs or by visible representation, makes or publishes any imputation concerning any person intending to harm, or knowing or having reason to believe that such imputation will harm, the reputation of such person is said to defame that person.
Factual Situation: Anand posted some objectionable content on a popular social networking website. His friend Akash saw such posts and asked him about it. On such confrontation by Akash, Anand replied, "Rahul did it, I didn’t.” and expressly refused his involvement in the said act. Later, Akash informed Rahul regarding such act and Anand’s reply to his confrontation. Rahul, who was unaware of such act prior to Akash’s information found Anand’s action as defaming.
Is Anand liable for defamation?


92) Legal Principle: Whoever causes the death of any person by doing any rash or negligent act not amounting to culpable homicide, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description of a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or both.
Factual Situation: Ankit was standing on the foot board of a bus while travelling to his office in Mumbai. The bus driver, Mani knew about this and took a sharp turn without slowing down. Due to this, Ankit fell off from the bus and died instantly on the road. Police charged Mani under above principle for committing death of Ankit.
Decide whether Mani is liable under above for the death of Ankit.


93) Is the state action of banning Disha justified?


94) Can the actions of Y be penalised?


95) Can Sonu be convicted under this law?


96) Can X be liable for beating up Sonu?


97) Legal Principles:
I. A careless person becomes liable for his negligence when he owed a duty of care to others.
II. Volenti non fit injuria is a defence to negligence.
Factual Situation : R and S are friends. R is a professional horse-riding trainer. One day, S visits R and requests R to teach him how to ride a horse. R agrees, and tells S about the dangers of such an activity, such as the danger of falling off the horse, the possibility of not fastening the saddle properly, etc. S agrees to be careful and conveys to R that he has understood the risks. One fine day, while R is in the process of teaching S, a horse which has not been secured in its stable properly bolts towards S. S starts panicking and screams, and issharply kicked in the face by the horse. S falls down and fractures his leg as well. S sues R on account of the latter’s alleged negligence.
Is R liable for S’s injuries?


98) Legal Principles:
I. An unlawful interference with a person's use or enjoyment of land or some right over or in connection with it is a nuisance in tort.
II. The fact that the plaintiff "came to the nuisance" by knowingly acquiring property in the vicinity of the defendant's premises is not a defense to nuisance.
III. However, an act cannot be anuisance if it is imperatively demanded by public convenience. Thus, when the public welfare requires it, a nuisance may be permitted for special purposes.
Factual Situation: B buys a plot of land in 2010, and by the year 2012, he constructs a house on the land and takes possession of the house. Adjoining the plot, there are railway tracks. For the first few years of his possession, he is satisfied with the surroundings, and even though two trains pass by his house every day, he grows accustomed to the noise that accompanies them. In 2014, a new government is established at the centre, and the Ministry of Railways sanctions a number of new trains across the entire country to facilitate transportation for the masses. By late 2015, a total of 6 trains cross by B’s house every day, and the accompanying noise becomes unbearable for him. B is greatly aggrieved by the same and sues the Ministry of Railways for the nuisance caused to him.
Will his action against the Ministry succeed?


99) Legal Principles:
I. Employers/principals are vicariously liable, under the respondeatsuperior doctrine, for negligent acts or omissions by their employees /agents in the course of employment/agency.
II. A servant/agent may be defined as any person employed by another to do work for him on the terms that he, the servant/agent, is to be subject to the control and directions of his employer/principal in respect of the manner in which his work is to be done.
Factual Situation: X is Y’s secretary, and Z is Y’s driver. Y makes a Comprehensive list of office supplies needed for that month, and hands it over to X. He directs X to visit suppliers and procure the requisite items, and directs Z to drive X to the various required locations. X and Z are given a day to complete the job and leave the office. On the way, X convinces Z to take a break, and both of them take a detour to a nearby pub. The two.spend almost an hour, enjoying themselves with drinks, dance and music. After consuming a sizeable amount of. alcohol, they realise that they are running late and rush to complete the purchases. However, Z is quite inebriated and in an attempt to hasten the journey, he crashes his car into a hapless pedestrian B, severely injuring him.
Who is the person liable in the given situation?


100) Legal Principle: The communication of a proposal is complete-when it comes to the knowledge of the person to whom it is made.
Factual Situation: At KFC, X tells his friend, Y that he’ll pay Rs. 1000 to whoever finishes the largest chicken bucket all by themselves. Later that day, Z finishes the chicken bucket after which, K, one of the employees at KFC, tells him about X’s proposal.


101) Legal Principle: Agreements in restraint of marriage are void.
Factual Situation: Two friends agree that whoever gets married first shall have to let go of his right in the car that they purchased together in favour of the other one.


102) Legal Principle: Agreements, the meaning of which is not certain, or capable of being made certain, are void.
Factual Situation: A, a farmer, agrees to sell to B "half of next year’s produce of rice.”


103) Legal Principle: Contingent agreemens to do or not to do anything, if an impossible event happens, are void, whether the impossibility of the event is known or not to the parties to agreement at the time when it is made.
Factual Situation: X agrees to find a unicorn for Y for Rs. 10,000.


104) Which of the following courts issued directions to reduce waste generation and minimise use of plastic items in its courts?


105) Which of the following court gave a landmark ruling stating that Habeas Corpus cannot be used to separate live-in partners?


106) What among the following does the act of husband repeatedly taking loans on the wife's name knowing well that she had no source of income, and had failed to repay them, putting her in trouble amount to?


107) The Bombay High Court held that even if there is a reasonable doubt in the mind of the court regarding the mental condition of an accused at the time of the crime, then the said accused is entitled to benefit under Section 84 of the Indian Penal Code. What does section 84 deal with?


108) The Court recently held that recovery of narcotics from inside the body of the suspect should not be cruel and invasive as to fall foul of Article 21 of the Constitution. What does Article 21 deal with?


109) The Kerala High Court recently said that taking video of an act done publicly will not violate privacy. Under what article does the right of privacy fall under?


110) Which of the following High Court directed the state and the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) to keep a record of all pregnant women and ensure that they get balanced diet and undergo all necessary antenatal checks?


111) The Supreme Court recommended the Parliament to make a special law against lynching. Who spearhead the same?


112) Which city recently got its own Bench of the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT)?


113) The Supreme Court has reiterated that confession of a co-accused cannot by itself be taken as a substantive piece of evidence against another co-accused. Which amongst the following contains the law on evidence?


114) The spearhead of the Kali Bachao Andolan passed away in July. Who amongst the following is the said activist?


115) As per the Criminal Law(Amendment) Bill which has been passed by the Lok Sabha, what is the punishment for rape of girl below the age of twelve years?


116) Which court directed the state to appoint Information Commissioners in the Central Information Commission (CIC)?


117) Which of the following court ordered Legal Services Authorities of all States to extend video conferencing facility for accused lodged in jail in criminal cases to interact with their lawyers?


118) The Kerala High Court observed that ridiculing the husband before his close friends, relatives and colleagues and challenging his dignity amounts to which of the following as a cause for divorce:


119) Who amongst the following has been appointed as the Advocate General for the State of Telangana?


120) Which of the following Courts invoked the parens patriae doctrine to assume the role of legal guardian for cows and other cattle in the state?